15

The rule to pronouncing ㅢ is: Like ㅣ when directly following a consonant: 무늬 (/무니/), 희망 (/히망/) Like ㅔ or ㅖ when used as a possessive marker: 구글의 정책 (/구그레 정책/), 너의 마음 (/너예 마음/) Like ㅣ in the middle of a word: 민주주의 (/민주주이/) ㅡ or ㅣ or ㅢ(/ɰi/) at the word-initial position: 의사 (/의사/, /으사/, /이사/), 의의 (/으이/, /이이/, /의이/)


15

Of course, every language undergo sound changes over time, and Korean was certainly not an exception. Let's go over each sounds and see how they changed. The current mainstream vowel change hypothesis(established by Lee Ki-mun in the 1960's) states that two major vowel shift has occurred since the 13th century: The first shift occurred between the 13th and ...


12

We can't tell for sure, but Wikipedia puts it at either [z] (like in 'zoo'), or [ʝ̃], which would be a nasal version of [ʝ]. To pronounce [ʝ̃], say [j] like at the beginning of 여기 (or English 'yes'), but constrict airflow even further to create more turbulence (turning it from an approximant into a fricative) and nasalize it.


12

With the following pairs, the first consonant is pronounced: ㄳ, ㄵ, ㅄ, ㄼ, ㄽ, ㄾ, + any with ㅎ (ㄶ, ㅀ) 앉다 -> 안는다, 여덟 -> 여덜 핥다 -> 할다 With the following pairs, the second consonant is pronounced: ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄿ 흙 -> 흑 삶 -> 삼 읊다 -> 읍다 [읍따] There are a few exceptions to these: 밟다 -> 밥다 [밥따] 맑게 -> 말게 [말께] (but 맑다 -> 막다) Reference: 이익섭, 이상억, 채완 (1997), "한국의 언어", 서울: ...


12

"The prosodic patterns of Korean and English are fundamentally different." English speakers will fail to highlight the first syllable of words with a higher pitch. Instead, English speakers will incorrectly highlight a middle syllable with stress (making the other syllables too weak). English speakers will will incorrectly make the final syllable of a ...


11

ㅿ is a voiced dental fricative, hence /z/. The sound value is apparent from multiple sources of evidence: Earliest evidence for the sound is found in the 12th century text 鶏林類事 in which Korean words are transcribed in Chinese characters. Phonetic reconstructions of these characters give clues to the Korean sound /z/. Further evidence can be seen in similar ...


11

Nowadays, it is almost always pronounced as a diphthong just like 왜, i.e. as /wɛ/. In the past it was often pronounced as the monophthong /ø/ but has almost completely been replaced now by the diphthong pronunciation. You may hear a very old speaker pronounce it /ø/, but I don't think any young speakers still do. The case of 위 is the same; it used to be ...


11

The Korean sound ㅂ does not correspond exactly to the English sounds /p/ and /b/. In fact, while the Revised Romanization uses a 'b' to represent initial ㅂ, the McCune-Reischauer romanization uses a 'p' to represent the same sound. There are 2 key differences between English /p/ and /b/. Knowing these can help understand Korean ㅂ better. First English /p/ ...


10

According to The Korean Language by Iksop Lee and S. Robert Ramsey, modern Korean dialects have either tones or vowel lengths or neither, but never both (see map below). The authors do recognize that the importance of vowel length is fading especially with the younger generation, so these vestiges of Middle Korean will only be manifest in regional dialects ...


9

In terms of combining sounds and real conversation people will understand what you mean imagine you said, "안녕하세오" really fast, they might not catch the difference. I'm my opinion however, I think it's important to perfect (or work really hard on) your pronunciation since ㅗ and ㅛ are easier to fix than ㅗ and ㅓ for example.


9

The phenomenon you're hearing has been described not just in academic literature but also in more modern learners' guides to the Korean language. It is an example of initial denasalisation. Basically, the nasals ㅁ and ㄴ, phonemically /m/ and /n/ respectively, tend to denasalise to a heavily voiced [b] and [d] in initial position, and especially before ㅜ /u/. ...


8

Yes! A good example is the vowel ㅐ(ae). As you can see it is a combination of ㅏ(a) and ㅣ(i). So its original sound was ㅏㅣ(ai). But now it is pronounced as ㅐ(ae). Add 1: An article from the Joongang Ilbo, one of major Korean newspapers: http://mnews.joins.com/article/7185800 Add 2: The important part is "영상 속에 소개된 발음을 보면 당시엔 '나랏'을 '나라쓰'로 발음하고 'ㅐ'를 '아이'로 읽는 ...


8

Be careful not to mix up tones and intonation. A language with tones will distinguish words with different pitches or pitch contours - this means that you can have two words with the same phonemes, but which are distinguished by pitch (or pitch contour -rising pitch, falling pitch, etc.) alone. Chinese has 4 tones, because, for example, the word "ma" can ...


8

This is called 구개음화 (palatalization), and it's one of several assimilation rules in Korean. It occurs when ㄷ or ㅌ is in the 받침, and is followed by a syllable beginning with 이: 같- + 이 = 같이 [가치] 굳- + 이 = 굳이 [구지] In the example you've given, the ㄷ + ㅎ combination produce [ㅌ] sound, but since it is followed by the 이 sound, palatalization occurs, resulting in [...


7

Word initial it is unvoiced, hence [k]. In medial positions, it becomes voiced, hence [g]. This is a regular phonological process, so native speakers without linguistic training are typically unaware of the difference. Also note that is a regular pattern found in many other Korean consonants. How you wish to romanize it depends on the romanization scheme. ...


7

In the modern Seoul dialect, these are audibly "indistinguishable." I put that in quotations, since there is controversy over this. But, I believe that some dialects still distinguish them in an actually meaningful way. Not being an expert on southern 사투리, I cannot authoritatively comment on this, however it is my understanding that certain dialects ...


6

There is a rule that words cannot begin with ㄴ/ㄹ+[i/j], as explained in this question. That is, they cannot begin with 니, 냐, 녀, 리, 료, 류, etc. Exceptions are recent borrowings. But this rule was not always so: in medieval Korean such words were possible, but recent sound changes eliminated the initial consonant. 잎 (leaf) was 닢 in the past; it's still ...


6

They are not distinguished properly in modern Korean. It includes 자/쟈, 저/져, 주/쥬, 조/죠, 제/졔, 재/쟤 and ㅊ and ㅉ-equivalents too. This is because ㅈ(/t͡ɕ/) is already palatalized in modern Korean, or at least in the Standard Korean pronunciation, so that adding /j/ after it doesn't make a difference. That's why there are no words spelt with 쟈/져/쥬/죠/졔/쟤 in Korean ...


6

The letter ㅇ at the beginning of a syllable isn't pronounced and the letter ㅇ acts as a filler letter. In addition, when a syllable starts with ㅇ and the previous syllable ends with a consonant, the word is usually pronounced as if the consonant was moved to the ㅇ's location. That is true. For example, 먹어요 is usually pronounced like 머거요, or 맛있어요 is ...


6

There's no rule for when to use ㅆ vs. ㅅ, just as there's no rule for when to use /b/ and when to use /p/ in English - they are separate phonemes, so you just have to memorize it. One thing that is helpful to know is that ㅉ, ㅃ, and ㄸ are never found in the 받침 of a word. So as you listen more, you will be able to distinguish the sounds that you hear better, ...


6

I can tell you right now. (Always) Voiced: all vowels, ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ(final), ㄹ (Conditionally) Voiceless: ㄱ, ㄲ, ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ (Strongly) Aspirated: ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅅ, ㅊ, ㅎ Not (strongly) aspirated: ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ Not aspirated: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ Note that Korean doesn't really phonemically contrast voicing, so it's not weird if a voiced consonant ...


6

When we read the word 옷이 slowly, the 받침 ㅅ is pronounced as ㄷ. No, it's not. It's always pronounced [오시], no matter how slow you read it. Unless somehow the 이 part was obscured while 옷 was being read, so you couldn't infer the batchim's sound value until 이 was revealed. Reading 옷이 as [오디] is wrong. You move the final consonant to the next syllable's initial ...


6

You're right, the consonant ㅎ is pronounced differently depending on the following vowel. In linguistical terminology, ㅎ has several allophones: When followed by ㅜ, ㅟ, ㅝ, ㅞ, possibly ㅗ, ㅘ, ㅚ, ㅙ: it is labialized, pronounced as [ʍ] or [ɸ]⟩1 When followed by ㅣ, ㅕ, ㅑ, ㅛ, ㅠ, etc.: it is palatalized, pronounced as [ç] When followed by ㅡ: it is velarized, ...


6

Probably you know that a Hanja character may have more than one pronunciation. For example, 樂 has seven different pronunciations, 락, 악, 낙, 요, 료, 록, 로. (낙 is derived by the word-initial rule 두음법칙 applied to 락. 료, 록, 로 are very rare readings which have few usage, mostly for reading particular phrases in classical Chinese texts.) When a Hanja character can be ...


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