14

I have always considered 됐어요 to be a contraction of 되었어요. They are both equally correct forms of the past tense of the verb 되다. In spoken Korean, I use 됐어요 almost exclusively. In written Korean, I am more prone to use 되었다. Although there is no hard or fast rule on why this is, it is what feels most "correct." Just like in English, contractions are ...


13

연세 should be definitely mentioned here. 연세 is a more polite form of 나이, and if you want to be super polite, you can say 연세가 많으시다 to mean "old". It's also a very common expression. It might seem odd at first, because you're elevating 연세 which is the subject, not whoever old. But there's a thing called indirect honorifics(간접높임법) which allows for this to work. ...


12

순우리말: I think this would be fine coming from a non-Korean. While being a Korean speaker or learner, you can consider it yours. Also the sense of 우리 in 순우리말 (without any spaces in it) has become attenuated. 순 한글: This may be problematic because 한글 is supposed to mean the Korean script. So a Sino-Korean word written in 한글 would be 순 한글. Text incorporating ...


12

The first orthographic descriptions of Hangul was indeed in Hunminjeongeum, 1443. But the Korean language changed a lot over the centuries, so most of the old descriptions got useless in the Modern age. So by the 20th century, Korean spellings were a total mess. People still used letters that described obsolete sounds, and historical sound changes were ...


10

What you call "syllable block" is simply "글자" (character) to Koreans. A 자모 is almost always considered a sub-unit of a character. (When Hangul was invented, the only "characters" most Koreans knew were Chinese characters, which are also square and correspond to syllables. So it makes perfect sense to consider each square syllable a character.) E.g., 200자 ...


10

Okay, while @ting-choe has my gratitude for something that may level me up (my wife says I will "never understand" 김소월의 진달래꽃 - I think some "easier" poems (for my level) are in order here (and my Korean wife can recite these, too, so they must not be random). **산토끼** 산토끼 토끼야 어디를 가느냐 깡총깡총 뛰면서 어디를 가느냐 산고개 고개를 나혼자 넘어서 토실토실 알밤을 주워 올테야 **닭** 귀여운 꼬마가 닭장에 가서 암탉을 ...


10

Understading homonyms always requires the context. In that webtoon, I thought the word was 사자(嗣子) which means one who perpetuates the lineage. It's like an heir, although 태자 and 황태자 (For your information, 루블리스 카말루딘 샤나 카스티나 is described as 제국의 황태자.) are better to refer to an heir to the throne. 사자(嗣子) can also be found in Chapter 11 of an old novel, "운현궁의 봄", ...


9

In many cases, they are interchangeable. But 힘들다 is more focusing on the amount of effort you have to pay, especially physical effort. 등산은 힘들다(Hiking a mountain is hard) can be a proper example. Comparing to it, 어렵다 is more focusing on intellectual efforts, or lack of your ability. Usually 힘들다 proposes you can achieve what you want to if you do your best. ...


9

방금 should be used with the past tense or just a short while ago. 방금 뭐 했냐? (친구들이랑 with friends) 방금 뭐 하셨어요? (polite manner) However, 방금 뭐 해요 doesn't make sense to a native Korean. 방금 뭐 했어? 방금 뭐 했어요? does make sense. 금방 (soon, shortly) should be used within the future sentence. For example, 금방 갈게. I will be there in a second. I am not a right person to ...


9

They are mimetic words. They're called 음성상징어, and can be further classified into two categories: 의성어 are words that reflect the sound of something (phonomimes / onomatopoeia): 후루룩 (the sound of slurping) 쨍그랑 (the sound of a metal dish falling) 의태어 are words that reflect the "shape" of something (for example it's movement or feeling) (phenomimes)....


9

고등어 한 손 - two mackerels 장작 한 가리 - twenty pieces of firewood, used for things tied together 새끼 한 고팽이 - one roll of rope, only used for rope 북어 한 쾌 - twenty dried pollacks, only used for dried pollacks 오징어 한 축 - ten squids, only used for squids


9

진달래꽃 - 김소월 나 보기가 역겨워 가실 때에는 말없이 고이 보내 드리우리다 영변에 약산 진달래꽃 아름 따다 가실 길에 뿌리우리다 가시는 걸음 걸음 놓인 그 꽃을 사뿐히 즈려밟고 가시옵소서 나 보기가 역겨워 가실 때에는 죽어도 아니 눈물 흘리우리다 If someone doesn't know this poem, he or she is not South Korean. Here is a link to the translation for this poem https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Sowol


8

이상 and 이하 is always inclusive. 초과 and 미만 is always not inclusive. Therefore, 3년 이상 is 3 years or more 3년 이하 is 3 years or less cf. 3년 초과 is more than 3 years 3년 미만 is less than 3 years.


8

The word you are looking for is 시리다, meaning chilly or achingly/painfully cold. Rather than cold pain where cold complements and characterizes the pain, this one is the other way round: it is more directly about the cold that is characterized by pain. 시릴 수 있어요 would, as you might expect, mean It might get painfully cold. The word is usually used to describe ...


8

They can both mean a time right before or right after the speaking moment, however the following meaning is usually adopted by native speakers. 방금: To describe a short time not long before the speaking time. Similar to the word 아까. Ex: 방금 뭐 했어? -> What were you just doing? 금방: To describe a very short time not long after the speaking time. Future tense is ...


8

Learning any language can be difficult. That being said, Korean can be quite a challenge if you are only used to reading romanized characters. Learning the Korean alphabet would be the first step which you have already started to learn and study. As you mentioned, next would be pronunciation and with this new challenge the learning curve becomes a more ...


8

In addition to Putri's answer, 풋 can also be a prefix that means immature. Some of examples are: 풋사랑 : 풋 + 사랑(love) puppy love 풋사과: 풋 + 사과(apple) unripe apple 풋내기 : rookie 풋내: idiomatically describes young or immature


8

This is a great example of how a historical/literary/cultural/geographical reference is picked up by another cultural sphere and takes on a life of its own. La ligne Maginot, as the Encyclopedia Britannica states, is an: elaborate defensive barrier in northeast France constructed in the 1930s and named after its principal creator, André Maginot, who was ...


7

여보세요: From 여기 (yeogi) + 보다 (boda) + 세요 (seyo), literally “look here”. It's usually used when you are not sure who you are talking to. For example: Starting a conversation on the phone(You pick up the phone and you're not sure who you are talking to) Ask someone's attention (이봐요! 여보세요! "maybe like Hey you!!!"). You may even talk loudly or shout to draw ...


7

'방금' and '금방' have same hanja behind: 方今 vs 今方. Although, '방금' is more often used for past, and '금방' is more widely used for the future, they both can mean short time preceding, or following the current moment (often interchangeable). (Interestingly, 今 means 'now', and 方 means 'direction', hence in the word 방금, the direction is left of now, and in 금방 it is ...


7

Just answering Q1: Naver's dictionary lists six words. However, among them, 奇計 is a very rare word. I'm not even sure if I've seen it anywhere, although I might understand the term if I saw it in the right context. The others (氣界/棋界/碁界/器界) are even more rare: I'm sure I've never seen them. ...which leaves us with the two common Hanja spellings, 機械 and 器械....


7

I'll start by depressing you further - I've been learning Korean on and off (and admittedly there has been a lot of 'off') for more than 10 years now, and I'm still pretty terrible! So if you really have the intention to learn Korean well, there's a warning there... intentions + time do not necessarily equal progress. There's also a warning there for me not ...


7

독일(獨逸) - Germany, from Japanese (ドイツ doitsu), ultimately from German Deutsch 화란(和蘭) - Netherlands, from Japanese (オランダ oranda), ultimately from Papiamento Hulanda 불란서(佛蘭西) - France, from Japanese (フランス furansu), ultimately from French France 노서아(露西亞) - Russia, from Japanese (ロシア roshia), ultimately from Russian Россия (Rossiya) 지나(支那) - China, from ...


7

There are some words borrowed from Russian in North Korean, but not nearly as many as there are words from English in South Korean. The North Korean government has really emphasized their independence, and made efforts to rid their language of "impure elements". So they have sometimes created replacement words for foreign-borrowed words. So overall, ...


7

North Korea and Russia are strategically close countries, but because North Korea uses the same language as Korea, linguistically it is not helpful to learn Russia 북한과 러시아는 친하지만, 북한과 한국만 같은 언어를 사용하기 때문에, 러시아를 배운다 해도 북한 언어를 배우는 데 아무런 도움이 되지 않는다.


7

I want to know if Lee Harvey Oswald killed John F. Kennedy. I want to know the truth. Am I looking for 진리 or 진실? You're looking for 진실. 진리 is a more or less philosophical/religious/logistical term. You don't normally refer to everyday facts as 진리. A fact is only considered 진리 when it can be proved true by mathematics, science, logical inference, or in a ...


7

Not sure if this matches what you want, but there's a word 담백하다. It means "lacking (unnecessary) strong taste", i.e., not too salty, not spiced, no (or very little) peppers, etc. It is also a very positive word. For example, you could say "이 물김치는 담백해서 좋아요." for a white (or nearly white) kimchi. You'd probably not want to use the word for ordinary 배추김치.


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