A series of phonological changes regarding word-initial /ㄴ/ and /ㄹ/ are known to have started around Seoul, and spreaded to other regions, as most sociolinguistic changes happen. The change was a very slow and steady one, recorded at least since the 15th century, shortly after the invention of Hangul, which much more properly records Korean phonology than ...
I hope someone else could write a more definite answer, but in short, your idea that "the second syllable becomes 된소리 when the first ends with a consonant" is generally wrong.
The phenomenon of some consonants becoming 된소리, known as 경음화, depends on historical development, and isn't entirely predictable. Sometimes people may even have different opinions. ...
Is the Modern Seoul dialect losing its length distinction?
Yes, length contrast is being neutralised in Seoul Korean. This is something that has been happening for a while:
According to Han (1964), Seoul Korean speakers who were back then in their 20s and 30s, thus born in the 1930s/40s, had a robust distinction between long and short vowels. However, the ...
It's called 사이시옷, a way to express 사잇소리 phenomenon(which itself is written with 사이시옷, btw). 사잇소리 현상 happens very frequently, with or without 사이시옷. Here are some examples with 사이시옷:
나무 + 잎 = 나뭇잎
제사 + 날 = 제삿날
비 + 물 = 빗물
하교 + 길 = 하굣길
시계 + 바늘 = 시곗바늘
Things get really confusing when we delve into this a bit more. For example, when 사잇소리 phenomenon happens ...
This is known as the monopthongisation of the diphthongs /aj/ and /əj/.
In Korean, it may be known as 단모음화, but this is actually ambiguous with the more common phenomenon of vowel shortening, so is generally written with clarifying hanja
단(單)모음화 or 단모음화(單母音化).
In 1446, when hangeul was promulgated, what is now called Middle Korean had many more ...
I think the vowel “ㅓ” doesn’t sound like the “a” in “a cat.”
Because it doesn’t.
“A cat” sounds [ə kæt] in American English. What you’re referring to would be either [ə]mid central vowel (schwa) or [æ]near-open front unrounded vowel. If you have to choose, /ə/mid central vowel (schwa) is closer, but /ㅓ/ is actually neither of them.
What does /ㅓ/ sound like?
There's a misunderstanding here - 「不」 is not the etymon of 「아」. Please carefully notice the reconstruction notes; reproduced below with some additions for emphasis:
The second character (冬) is a common Old Korean phonogram for the syllable *tol. The first syllable (不) is a logogram conventionally reconstructed as *AN because the sequence 不冬 is used in ...
Here are some other acoustic differences. I don't know what articulatory differences are behind them:
The vowel after a tense or aspirated consonant has higher pitch than the vowel after a plain consonant. Some references: https://www.ling.upenn.edu/~csunghye/Cho_Lee2016_Final.pdf, http://www.yoonjungkang.com/uploads/1/1/6/2/11625099/syllabary_submitted.pdf
There are a combination of features between ㅅ and ㅆ that differentiate them.
The biggest contributor to the difference is duration of aspiration following the frication: a longer aspiration resulting in "breathiness" in ㅅ, vs a longer period of friction creating more "tension" in ㅆ. The evidence for this comes from electronically generated artificial ...
I am native Korean speaker but it is hard to explain the difference by written form. (yet I would say the main difference is you push air through teeth longer in ㅆ)
I suggest you to check the videos such as :
He explains it in quiet detail.
The phonology of the standard Korean
The 21 vowels
The Korean vowel diagram
The 10 short vowels
ㅏ as in 아이 (“child”) [ɐ.i]
ㅓ as in 어디 (“where”) [ʌ.di]
ㅗ as in 오이 (“cucumber”) [o̞.i]
ㅜ as in 우리 (“we”) [u.ɾi]
ㅡ as in 그 (“that” or “he”) [kɯ]
ㅣ as in 이마 (“forehead”) [i....