14

Dictionary order is defined in 한글맞춤법 2장 4항 자음(19자) ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ 모음(21자) ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ 받침(27자) ㄱ ㄲ ㄳ ㄴ ㄵ ㄶ ㄷ ㄹ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ ㅀ ㅁ ㅂ ㅄ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ A typical way of memorizing these is to say '가나다라마바사아자차카타파하', '아야어여오요우유으이', then insert the appropriate double alphabets in between. As for the 받침, the order ...


12

The first orthographic descriptions of Hangul was indeed in Hunminjeongeum, 1443. But the Korean language changed a lot over the centuries, so most of the old descriptions got useless in the Modern age. So by the 20th century, Korean spellings were a total mess. People still used letters that described obsolete sounds, and historical sound changes were ...


10

TL;DR version: While Japanese kanji can be be represented by any number of syllables, Korean hanja always represents a single syllable. Korean words of Chinese origin that have had some sound changes applied are not interchangeable with hanja except in rare cases. Some words are Chinese in origin but have been nativized through sound changes. Take this ...


8

Every hanja is exactly one syllable, no exceptions. No sound change made hanja pronunciation vary in syllable length since when hanja came to Korea(which is a looong time ago).


6

I'd say "classical" hanja-eo (based on Middle Chinese eumhun readings) is quite easy to spot, although the accuracy is quite low. You've mentioned certain phonological and phonotactic features; there are a few more which I can go through: lack of 쌍 consonants restricted set of 받침: limited to those of Sino-Korean and corresponding to Middle Chinese's, i.e. ㄴ,...


6

If you search "ㄹ려고" in Naver, the 국어사전 (i.e. the Korean to Korean dictionary) says the following: ‘-려고’의 잘못. In other words, "ㄹ려고" is a mistaken (i.e. incorrect) form of "-려고" The ensuing discussion on Naver then includes a discussion on the topic. Someone asks the question 일상적으로 말할 때 "이제 막 먹을려고 했다."와 같이 말하는 경우가 있는데 ...


5

소 -> cow 소의 -> cow's 소의고기 -> cows's meet (beef) However, 소의 generally gets contracted into 쇠. This is due to the combination of vowel sounds (ㅗ at the bottom of 소 and the following 의 sound) Hence 쇠고기 literally means "cow's meat" and 소고기 would mean "cow meat". However, in general conversation both would be understood as "beef"


5

ㅇ in inital position is now a filler letter for syllables which lack a inital consonant. But it was not 600 years ago. In 1443, when Hangul was designed, King Sejong, the inventor of Hangul, had made three characters which corresponds to ㅇ of today. They were ㆁ, ㅇ(same as today), and ㆆ(small horizontal stroke on the top). ㆁ is called 옛이응 now, Literally "...


5

Simply writing ㅐ, ㅡ, or ㅏ is incorrect in terms of how syllable blocks are expected to be written in Korean. All syllable blocks contain a beginning consonant and a vowel (or compound vowel) to follow it. The 받침 is optional. It's special in the fact it allows vowel-only sounds to legally exist in Korean sentences. Of course, keep in mind that it has other ...


4

It depends on the criteria. I have made my own list (separated into 1 and 2) using a programming language and the words contained in the standard dictionary (March 2020), with the following conditions: Words like loanwords and old Hangul words, phrases, and proverbs are all excluded (They have no prescribed pronunciations). Simple rules regarding 겹받침, 구개음화, ...


4

설농탕 is a word used in past. grammatically 설렁탕 is correct. 설농탕 and 설렁탕 have the same meaning overall.


4

/움지기다/ is written as '움직이다' because: "‘움직이다’는 시늉말 어근에 ‘-이다’가 붙어서 된 용언이다. 이때는 어원을 밝히어 적는다. 따라서 ‘움직이다’로만 적는다. 출처: 한글 맞춤법 4장 3절 24항" - Naver dictionary '움직이다' is a verb which is formed by attaching the suffix '-이다' to a imitative stem. In this case you clarify the original form. So it's only written as '움직이다'. 한글 맞춤법 4장 3절 24항 (Paragraph #24, Section 3 "...


2

We don't generally underline or quote to mark a person's name. However when we want to emphasize it, it can be underlined, quoted, or marked by dots above the characters, like . Refer to the Korean Grammar Rules(한글 맞춤법) by the National Institute of Korean Language: Supplement 18. Emphasis marks (드러냄표; ˙ ) and underline ( ___ ) Used to indicate the notable or ...


2

I think I figured it out. But first you have to know what '양성 모음(positive vowels)' and '음성 모음(negative vowels)' are, with a rule called 모음 조화(vowel harmony). Here are some informations from 국립국어원(National Institute of the Korean Language) which I briefly translated: Positive vowels are the vowels giving 'bright and fresh' impressions. 'ㅏ', 'ㅗ', 'ㅑ', 'ㅛ', '...


2

In addition to other good answers, there are also many common syllables that are never used for Hanja, so if you encounter them it's a good sign that the word is not Sino-Korean. Some of the "gaps" are not easily explained (at least I don't know any explanation): it's just the way it is. Examples include 센, 더, 뭉. Note that slightly different syllables ...


2

I believe that there is a one to one correspondence between hanja to hangul. i.e. Hangul (sound) whereas hanja the (Chinese character).


2

Some tips (?) I'm not confident enough to claim that these are legitimate tip, but they work for me so far. 움직이다 is the only word I initially thought was weird, because "직이" just didn't feel right when I was under the impression that this was a "monolithic" word. The reason I felt "직이" wasn't right was that tip 1: usually (IMHO) spellings only become ...


2

모자라다 is a verb in Korean, so you need to conjugate the word according to the verb rule, despite having an adjective meaning. However it is an intransitive verb, which means you cannot have object attached to it. Example: 힘이 모자라서... Without enough power... 아/어 conjugation is the same for verbs and adjectives, so I don't see any example showing 모자라다 as an ...


1

Those are both the same words as other answers suggest. In real life, 쇠고기 tends to sound more polite and offical than 소고기.


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