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20

I understand that the 500 or so possible digraphs and trigraphs have been encoded as single unicode blocks, but I would expect that most computer systems would use the 40 individual letters and use a compositing system rather than use unicode encodings. Is that true? Unicode has 11,172 (not 500) precomposited Hangul syllable code points (starting with 가, 각, ...


19

My experience is that learning to read Korean is easier than learning to read English. You will be severely limited in what you can learn if you never learn Hangul. Picture trying to learn English using only Hangul. That would be rather tough. And you would tend to learn things such as pronunciation quite inaccurately. Reading romanized Korean correctly ...


12

What direction is the text supposed to be read in? Until recently, Korean text was written in columns going down, reading the right-most column first and proceeding leftward. Why are some of the Hangul characters smaller than others? In most cases, the smaller Hangul characters are pronunciations of the previous (above) 한자. Not all the 한자s there have ...


12

We can't tell for sure, but Wikipedia puts it at either [z] (like in 'zoo'), or [ʝ̃], which would be a nasal version of [ʝ]. To pronounce [ʝ̃], say [j] like at the beginning of 여기 (or English 'yes'), but constrict airflow even further to create more turbulence (turning it from an approximant into a fricative) and nasalize it.


11

Learning Hangul is the absolute easiest thing about learning Korean. I learned in a couple of hours in a cafe in Guatemala with a Korean backpacker girl over a decade ago and never forgot it. Pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are all way harder for me. I can read signs and often menus but I can't have a rudimentary conversation. (Well I don't know ...


11

The shapes of Hangul consonants were derived from shapes of tongue, throat and mouth when they were spoken. I found a good image explaining it!


11

TL;DR version: While Japanese kanji can be be represented by any number of syllables, Korean hanja always represents a single syllable. Korean words of Chinese origin that have had some sound changes applied are not interchangeable with hanja except in rare cases. Some words are Chinese in origin but have been nativized through sound changes. Take this ...


10

To start entering Hanguel in a Windows computer, we first need to get the Microsoft Korean IME A good step-by-step guide to installing the IME is here: http://www.declan-software.com/korean_ime/korean_ime.htm#korean_vista This is for Windows Vista, but it should be similar for other Windows versions Here's the layout for a standard Korean ...


10

Around the time Korea got colonized by Japan, the 한글 맞춤법 통일안 (Unified Hangul Grammar Rules) were written by the 조선어 학회 (Korean Language Society). The first appearance of something related to horizontal writing in Korean language history is found in their revision in the year 1940. There was nothing that stated which direction was the 'default' one, but it ...


10

Writing hangul in syllable block form has been the norm since its invention, so in terms of tradition, there is very little drive for it to ever appear in linear form. That is, until the first modern typewriters, based on the Latin alphabet, were introduced to Korea. While there are only a small number of jamo, comparable to the total number of symbols in ...


9

If you want to know and understand Korean, you need to learn the Korean writing system. There are a few important reasons. The Korean language uses a syllable-block system with several pronunciation rules based on the placement of a particular sound in the syllable block and how different syllable blocks interact. This is quite easy to understand in ...


9

There is a standard way of handwriting hangul. All stroke orders follow this guideline: top -> bottom left -> right Although, in terms of writing a "cursive" hangul, everyone kind of does their own thing. For example, ㄹ might be written in one stroke (squiggly) instead of five segments, something like this. ㅁ and ㅇ sometimes get written confusingly because ...


8

I can imagine only these situations... If you want to be a lawyer in Korea. Some law terms are written in ancient Korean (and getting replaced with Hangul representation) If you want to study ancient Korean history. If you have academic interest in historic Korean language. Usually, you have no need to deal with Hanja unless you are dealing with some very ...


8

When hangul is handwritten rather flowery it is referred to as 흘림체 or "cursive". Here is an example of a mild 흘림체 vs its typewritten counterpart: In paraphrase of this article note the following when it comes to handwritten hangul. Strokes are more important than shape To read handwritten Korean, one must see the pen/brush strokes, not the final shape. ...


8

Every hanja is exactly one syllable, no exceptions. No sound change made hanja pronunciation vary in syllable length since when hanja came to Korea(which is a looong time ago).


8

The correspondence between "eogksalsrnr" and "대한민국" is based on the standard Korean keyboard layout. E is on the same key as ㄷ, O is on the same key as ㅐ, etc. (source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Korean_keyboard_layouts#/media/File:Samsung_K652V.jpg) Google probably thinks you have a Korean keyboard that is accidentally in English mode.


8

Learning any language can be difficult. That being said, Korean can be quite a challenge if you are only used to reading romanized characters. Learning the Korean alphabet would be the first step which you have already started to learn and study. As you mentioned, next would be pronunciation and with this new challenge the learning curve becomes a more ...


8

What a fun question! The consonants DO have names and can be used in spelling: ㄱ = 기역 (giyeok) ㄴ = 니은 (nieun) ㄷ = 디귿 (digeut) ㄹ = 리을 (rieul) ㅁ = 미음 (mieum) ㅂ = 비읍 (bieup) ㅅ = 시옷 (siot) ㅇ = 이응 (ieung) ㅈ = 지읒 (jieut) ㅊ = 치읓 (chieut) ㅋ = 키읔 (kieuk) ㅌ = 티읕 (tieut) ㅍ = 피읖 (pieup) ㅎ = 히읗 (hieut) ㄲ = 쌍기역 (ssanggiyeok) ㄸ = 쌍디귿 (ssangdigeut) ㅃ = 쌍비읍 (ssangbieup) ㅆ = ...


8

I think you mean 한국어. And yes, it is indeed because there's a morpheme boundary between 국 and 어. Almost all morpheme boundaries that are recognizable by native speakers are treated this way, except the ones that are too complicated to reflect in writing, such as irregular verb conjugations and obscure/irregular suffixes. There are rules that decide which ...


7

Word initial it is unvoiced, hence [k]. In medial positions, it becomes voiced, hence [g]. This is a regular phonological process, so native speakers without linguistic training are typically unaware of the difference. Also note that is a regular pattern found in many other Korean consonants. How you wish to romanize it depends on the romanization scheme. ...


7

One example of where Hanja might be used is to disambiguate homonyms. For example, 사과 can mean an apology, or an apple. The Hanja - 謝過, or 沙果 - might be used to clarify which is meant.


7

Korean (Chinese, Japanese) characters are multibyte. Whenever dealing with multibyte characters, the recommendation is for your site encoding to use UTF-8. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> And as @teddy-cross notes, the HTML5, arguably equivalent but shorter version ...


7

First, don't trust Google Translate, especially if you're learning Korean. Also, keep in mind that the modern Korean sentences you see are already a translation of the original middle Korean, so different people may "translate" the original to slightly different versions of modern Korean. That said, the first translation seems a bit embellished. ...


6

You type out the individual letters (jamo) and the IME (a program running on your computer) will intelligently combine them into what it thinks will be the best syllable block. Example: I type ㅂㅏㅂ, it will produce 밥 If I were to add anotherㅏit will produce 바바 instead of 밥 ㅏ The jamo are processed according to how the language defines it which is all ...


6

Old Hangul (옛한글) apparently allowed up to 9 jamo in a single block. I am not sure if this was "proper" use or abuse of Hangul at the time... I managed to find a reference to one of these "in the wild:" ꥸᅦퟗ which cites this document from 1922. Unicode supports Old Hangul, if just to study and document old Korean texts. (Interestingly, the character ꥸᅦퟗ is ...


6

There's no rule for when to use ㅆ vs. ㅅ, just as there's no rule for when to use /b/ and when to use /p/ in English - they are separate phonemes, so you just have to memorize it. One thing that is helpful to know is that ㅉ, ㅃ, and ㄸ are never found in the 받침 of a word. So as you listen more, you will be able to distinguish the sounds that you hear better, ...


6

I can tell you right now. (Always) Voiced: all vowels, ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ(final), ㄹ (Conditionally) Voiceless: ㄱ, ㄲ, ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ (Strongly) Aspirated: ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅅ, ㅊ, ㅎ Not (strongly) aspirated: ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ Not aspirated: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ Note that Korean doesn't really phonemically contrast voicing, so it's not weird if a voiced consonant ...


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