It’s okay to use 해라체 in personal notes but in general it isn’t preferred. They’d rather write sentences without 상대 높임법 applied. A way to do that is to use 명사형 종결어미 like ~기 or ~음 which makes the sentence sound very neutral.
Afaik the most common form in 'TODO' sentences is ~하기. I also use it myself in my personal notes. For example,
화분에 물 주기: Water the ...
Hoping someone else would explain it in detail, let me just give you a tiny bit of info about this phenomenon.
Is “춥다” an irregular adjective?
Yes, along with other “-ㅂ” stem adjectives/verbs except for some. We can't say every such adjective/verb is, but a bunch are.
ㅂ irregular conjugation
It's called “ㅂ irregular conjugation (ㅂ 불규칙 활용).” A conjugation ...
-(하다)고 corresponds, more or less, to English "that". It packages the whole inner sentence so that it can be used as an object of the outer verb.
행복하다고 느낍니까? = Do you feel that you are happy?
행복하다고 생각한다. = [I] think that I am happy.
행복하다고 말했어요. = [He] said that he was happy.
주민들이 행복하다고 주장했습니다. = They insisted that the residents are happy.
Let's focus on this final phrase:
말해야 했었던 널 향한 사랑의 말이야
First off, see that 의 말이야 is a form of that's what i'm talking about.
In other words, 사랑의 말이야 is then, love is what I'm talking about.
Now, getting closer to your question surrounding (아/어)야 했었던, let's first point out that everything in this phrase before 사랑 modifies that noun (which obviously means &...
뵙다 is an unusual verb. It's pretty much the same as 뵈다 (except maybe a little more polite), but unlike 뵈다, 뵙다 can only combine with a suffix starting with a consonant other than ㄹ. (But see below for clarification.) From Naver dictionary:
(자음 어미와 결합하여) (사람이 웃어른을) 대하여 보다. ‘뵈다1’를 더욱 공손하게 이르는 말이다.
So, if 뵙다 were a completely regular verb, then its ...
You cannot take tense from one language, apply to another language, and expect no change. Remember, there's no such thing as "pure past tense". What you're asking about is an English expression with an English past tense.
The Korean expression, "텔레비전이 고장났어요", expresses an event that has happened in the past: in fact, it's almost exactly ...
It's really just a difference in politeness levels. -네 is used in talking with very close friends or younger people, or in making a comment to yourself. -네요 is used when making a comment to someone older or superior to you.
Korean has lots of different speech levels, as described in this Wikipedia page.
When you said
나는 책을 공부해.
That's fine - it's the kind of thing you could say to a friend. That was using the 'Hae-che' (해체) style.
The translation you found...
나는 책을 공부한다.
Is also fine, but using the 'Haera-che' (해라체) style. As described in the wiki page, you often ...
고 means indirect quotation
요즘, 행복하다고 느끼나요 ?
This sentence can be used in the following situation :
A : C earn a big money so that C is happy
B : Oh.
B : I heard that you are happy 요즘 행복하다고 하던데.
C : Sure.
It is the conjugated form of 믿다 in the formal non-polite (해라체) form, in the present tense, in the indicative (non-interrogative/non-question) mood.
Why does it have to insert a 는? Maybe one could think that it is like 밝다, which doesn't change in the conjugation for present indicative 해라체.
But this is one of key grammatical differences between verbs (동사) ...
It's not really related to the ending that is added. There are many cases of verbs that are composed of a noun + verb. In many of these words, it can be expressed in 2 ways:
As one word: NounVerb (e.g. 춤추다)
As two words; the noun as the object of the verb (e.g. 춤을 추다).
If both cases are permitted, then any endings could be added to either: 춤춥니다 or 춤을 춥니다,...
All forms of 알다 except 알았었다 are commonly used by natives. 알다 is a special verb which any tenses can be used on.
알아요, 알고 있어요, 알겠어요, 알았어요
Their difference is very subtle but let me still try to explain.
알겠다: Since it is future tense, you use this to respond to a reminder or an order(since reminders and orders are related to stuffs in the future). This one ...
Yes, 무섭다 can mean both "scared" and "scary". Other similar words also behave the same: 재미있다 (interested / interesting), 지루하다 (bored / boring), etc.
Normally, to say "I'm scared." you just have to say "무서워요." There's no reason to add "나는", because who else could it be?
"I'm scary." is more tricky, ...
It is only a matter of formality.
웃습니까? -> 'Are you laughing?' (Formal)
웃어요? -> 'Are you laughing?' (Informal polite)
웃어? -> 'Are you laughing?' (Informal)
You will most likely learn about this in the following chapters of your book.
Korean is a very contextual language, meaning that you can leave out a lot of parts of the sentence if it's obvious what you mean from who you're talking to, or what you're looking at, or what you were just talking about... or anything else that gives context to what you're saying.
By using 형은 어때 does it automatically means I am asking about your older ...
속이다 is actually the causative form (사동사) of 속다, not the passive. It's quite confusing sometimes, as the same ending 이다 is the passive suffix for some verbs but the causative suffix for others. In the case of 속다/속이다, 속다 is intransitive and means "be tricked, be deceived". It usually goes with a noun with the ending 에/에게 to indicate "by whom":
그는 사기꾼에게 ...
These are all different grammar forms, and thus they give a certain meaning to 있다 when attached to the verb-stem. I recommend you to start learning Korean grammar from e.g. www.talktomeinkorean.com or www.howtostudykorean.com, as your question is quite basic.
You can find out what all of them mean by using the guides on those websites.
1) 보고 싶다
나는 그녀가 보고 싶다. I miss her. (Usually, we use this form in a
2) 보고 싶어.
니가 보고 싶어 I miss you. (Usually, in conversation when talker is
older than or equal to listener. When listener is strictly older
than talker - A, 선생님, 보고 싶습니다. teacher, I miss you.)
3) Usually older use the both 싶다 싶어 in conversation.
"영화 보고 싶다" I want to see the movie.
I'm pretty sure you mean
공부한다 to study
so the "dictionary form" is 공부하다. from there it can be conjugated many many different ways, but let me focus a minute just on why the ㄴ다 was added.
Verbs are broken down into two main categories, as shown by the headers below.
The main conjugation into an informal, lacking polite form version adds ...