8

In general, "당신" is a honorific expression indicating the listener, but the listener may be not close to the speaker. 당신의 이름이 무엇인지 알고 싶습니다. 당신을 기억하고 있겠습니다. However, "당신" can be a belittling term in specific situations. 당신이 뭔데 참견하십니까? "당신" can be used to represent great respect for the third person. 할머니는 종종 당신께서 손수 만드신 과자를 주시곤 하였다. See: 당신 ...


6

Can each of the Korean speech levels be categorised as 반말 or 존댓말? Of course. 하십시오체(합쇼체), 하오체, 해요체 are 존댓말, 하게체, 해라체, 해체 are 반말. It's that simple. Do 반말 and 존댓말 classification relate more to formality(격식), or politeness(높임)? Politeness, as you can see from the table. Do they relate to the usage honorifics such as the honorific particle, or honorific ...


5

If you are going to speak 해요 to young children on any extended basis, you'd better look like Mary Poppins and be guiding them on their activities. (I.e. it is a formal setting, with you in a public role.) Otherwise--e.g. if you looked serious or just plain neutral--it will be a confusing experience for them. Somewhat like, if your dad called you 'sir,' ...


5

There seems to be no honorific expression of 언니. {언니}는 여성끼리의 호칭어다. 앞서 확인한 다른 호칭어와 같이 친족 집단에서 사용되며 비 친족 집단에서 [친밀]의 공유를 중심으로 사용되는 공통점을 가진다. 하지만 다른 어휘소가 {형님}, {오라버니}, {누님}같은 확장 어휘소를 가지는 것과 달리 {언니}는 별도의 확장 어휘소가 없으며 [높임]을 표현할 때는 (3 "6")처럼 {형님}을 사용한다.1 Here (3 "6") is the sixth meaning of "형님". Reference 김광순 (2015). 친족어의 호칭어로서 확장ㆍ사용 양상. 한국어의미학, 48, 175-201.


5

Not very common (I think), but many people show this behavior with different reasons. Korean has formal speech forms. Minors must use formal speech form in conversation with seniors. Between civilians, number one rule is the age. But there are other hierarchies: office rank, school seniority, gender(!), and so on. Suppose there are two office workers with ...


3

MujjinGun's answer is excellent, but if I may add, you could think like this if you get confused whether a sentence is in 반말 or 존댓말: In modern Korean, anything besides 해요체 and 합쇼체 (하십시오체) is in 반말. 하오체 is 존댓말, strictly speaking, but is not used anymore. (하오체 was popular on the internet about 15 years ago, but that's gone too.)


2

It is still used a lot in church when praying to God, like this: 주님 우리를 인도하여 주옵소서! (Please lead us, Lord) I'm not sure if it's used in Buddhist prayers or not. And of course we can hear it a lot in historical dramas, so it remains familiar to people even if they never use it.


2

I was taught at 연세어학당 (Yonsei University Language Institute) that there are two basic forms: 반말 - ex: 해, 해봐, 이리 와, 빨리가 and 존댓말 - ex: 해요, 해보세요, 이리 오세요, 빨리 가세요 (also including higher honorifics like) 합니다, 하십시오, 이쪽으로 오십시오, 서들러서 가십시오 Now, I have a habit of speaking to children that I don't know well in 존댓말, but I have been told that I don't have to honor ...


2

하십시오체(formerly 합쇼체) doesn't have a dedicated "I just realized," describing ending like -네요 or -든요, mostly because these kind of endings are only used when talking to oneself(in 해체) or in informal situations(in 해체 or 해요체). The closest you can get in 하십시오체 is ㅂ니다 and -ㄴ뎁쇼(not used as much). But it can be expressed in 하십시오체 in many other ways. 비가 오는가 ...


2

하오체 is generally perceived "old fashioned" by modern South Korean speakers. Don't know how it's used about North Korea though. Signs are the most prevalent usage nowadays, since it sounds polite and formal. However, according to http://namu.wiki/, 하오체 was tried as an "Internet speech level", mainly among the Korean community DCinside around 2002. However, ...


2

There are four formal expressions and two informal expressions. Formal expressions are used in official situations or for people who are not that familiar with you. Formal expressions 합쇼체/하십시오체( ~하십시오, ~습니다, ~입니다. ~입니까?): The most honorary term. It is only used for people like your boss. Or if you present in public with a lot of audiences, you can use it. ...


1

jondaemal of noun : 밥 -> 식사, 진지, 아침, 점심 또는 저녁 jondaemal of verb : Usually, we use 요. But there are irregular case : 먹다 -> 드시다 마시다 -> 드시다 (1) 엄마 : 아들, 밥 먹었어? 아들 : 네. 엄마는 밥먹었어요 ? (2) 교수 : 자네, 식사 했나 ? 학생 : 네. 저는 밥 먹었습니다. 교수님은 점심 드셨나요 ? In social relation, usually we can not use 먹다, 마시다 to older. We can use only 드시다. For instance, 커피 드셨어요 ? But ...


1

I will add some to previous answers and comments : 1) Not host in given situation : Sometimes, one dislikes a duty in a present situation. If there is a group of going to eat, then one of clarifying end may buy dinner. 2) Observing other's interest : When we talk, someone want to satisfy other. So when we observe other's face, the sentence may vary : 밥은 ...


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