One ending that expresses that is the ending -ㄹ라:
넘어질라! (Careful you don't fall!)
늦을라! (Careful, you're going to be late!)
다칠라! (Careful, you'll get hurt!)
I've heard this mostly with adults talking to children. I'm not sure if it would be OK to use in other situations.
Reference: 어미 조사 사전 (이희자 이종희 지음)
Regarding Edit 1:
Instead of 부수다, I think the verb ...
It's one of attributive endings (관형 어미) which transform a predicate (verbs, adjectives) into a modifier of the following noun. When attached to a sentence, they make the sentence something like a relative clause in English.
There are four common attributive endings -ㄴ/-은, -ㄹ/-을, -던, and -는. They express different tense and aspect/modal.
-ㄴ/-은 implies a ...
Sources: 한국어의 불규칙 활용
[Grammar] ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙 : ‘ㅂ’ irregular verb/adjective
I tried searching the internet, but 돕다 and 곱다 likely seem to be the only irregularities (of ㅂ irregulars,) and I personally too can't think of any other similar examples. You could view the two as exceptional ones.
Some explanations on the internet claim that this kind of exception occur ...
겠 is an 어미(語尾 - 'Ending') that has five meanings. It is used to:
Convey future prediction/speculation.
Ex: "지금 공부를 시작하면 밤 8시에 끝내겠어요." - "If I begin studying now, I will be able to finish by 8 o'clock.
Convey the intention of the subject of the sentence.
Ex: "나는 하루종일 자겠다.' - "I will sleep all day."
Ex: "이 일은 재가 혼자 다 할 수 ...
You're mixing two slightly different aspects of speech. One (합쇼체: ~습니다/ㅂ니다) is more of a level of formality due to setting and the other(시) is a level of respect towards the subject of your sentences.
~세요 is simply a combination of 해요체(어/아요) and the honorific marker (시). Honorifics are only used towards people of higher status (i.e. older people, ...
Let's look at the dictionary definitions first.
(‘이다’의 어간, 용언의 어간 또는 어미 ‘-으시-’, ‘-었-’, ‘-겠-’ 뒤에 붙어)
해라할 자리에 쓰여, 물음을 나타내는 종결 어미.
(주로 동사 어간이나 어미 ‘-으시-’, ‘-었-’, ‘-겠-’ 뒤에 붙어)
하게할 자리에 쓰여, 물음을 나타내는 종결 어미.
자네 언제 떠나나?
자기 스스로에게 묻는 물음이나 추측을 나타내는 종결 어미.
얼굴이 붉어서 난 자네가 술을 마셨나 했어.
(‘있다’, ‘없다’, ‘...
As I know, the -게 되다 ending changes the verb into passive.
Not always, at least not in the English grammar sense of a passive verb form being one that shows that its grammatical subject is the "recipient" of an action, rather than the "doer" of an action - e.g. to kick is active, while to be kicked is passive.
X-게 되다 doesn't necessarily mean that something ...
Both have a range of different possible meanings in English - there is some overlap but they are not necessarily the same.
(으)ㄹ래요 is an ending meaning 'want to', which can be used as a question.
뭐 먹을래요? could mean "what would you like to eat?". It could also be, in a group context, 'what shall we eat?'. It wouldn't usually be used to mean 'what shall I ...
According to the 네이버 국어사전, it wrote:
을께: "을게"의 잘못. (Incorrect form of "을게")
So, the meaning and grammatical principle of 을께 is the same as 을게.
The correct version is 을게. However people tend to emphasize their words by saying 을께, despite the fact that 을께 is wrong.
For that reason, don't use 을께 in writings, but 을게.
안 comes from the shortened form of 아니다
The negation 않 comes from the shortened form of 아니하다
Both work the same way in terms of negating verbs or adjectives, but the longer form ~지 않다 is used more in formal situations
But perhaps another common difference would be the fact that 아니다 can be used as a statement in itself as a negative response. For ...
I think -ㄹ래요 is more like "I'm going to...": you announce your intention to do something, implying that you will do it. E.g.,
(a) (식당에서) 비빔밥 먹을래요. = I'll choose bibimbap.
(b) 비빔밥 먹고 싶어요. = I want to eat bibimbap.
In a dialogue, saying (b) would mean you're waiting for the other person's response. So, the sentence can be used when it is ...
Hi random Korean passing by :D
Your question is reeeeealllllly tricky.....
그는 A다면서 B했다. : He did B, even though A.
(OR the same meaning as below)
그는 A다며 B했다. : He did B, saying/doing/etc A.
So, 다면서 has more various meanings and uses than 다며.
Both are usually used in spoken language or when explaining a certain situation.
OMG this is so hard to explain. ...
Adding a consonant to a sentence-ending predicate often changes overall air of the sentence. A stop sound would make an imperative perfectly restrained and well regulated, I think. As a result, you would find ㅅ-appended imperatives often in military contexts, but not in every day conversations. (And, of course, in the north, given its militant, revolutionary ...
Yes, virtually all verbs/adjectives, and also 이다 and 아니다, allow -ㅁ, but not all of them are a noun in its own right.
The situation is similar to English -ing: some -ing forms are separate words (a long meeting / a bad feeling) but many are merely "noun-forms" of the corresponding verb and do not act as a separate word. E.g., Arriving at 5 will be ...
When the second clause is sequentially dependent on the first clause
슈퍼에 가서 장을 본다. "I go to the supermarket and buy groceries".
In this example, you can't buy groceries before going to the supermarket. Therefore, they're order dependent.
When the action in the first clause is interrupted by or shifts to the action noted in the second clause. ...
Prepending 안 is more casual while appending 지 않다 is more formal. But under many situations you can use them interchangeably.
One another trend is that for long verbs, appending 지 않다 is preferred. For example, the negate form of 거짓말하다 ('to lie') is usually 거짓말하지 않다. In this case 안 거짓말하다 seems really unnatural. On the contrary, short verbs such as 먹다 can ...
This answer comes from Korean Grammar in Use: Advanced:
Both expressions can be replaced with each other, however the following difference is noted:
어/아도: Used when hypothetical meaning is relatively weak and the possibility of the statement becoming a reality is high
더라도: Used when the hypothetical meaning is relatively strong and the possibility of the ...
In this particular case you ask about, "-하지 않다", This is the case of (as I dub it) "Intense Consonance Phenomenon." By "Intense Consonance" I mean 격음(激音).
ㅎ sound and ㅈ sound come together to create ㅊ sound.
As for your second question, the "Voice vs. Voicelessness" comes into factor. There are two cases:
Case of Voice: If the support consonant of the ...
By using "가지고", you can describe "찌개를 끓였다" as a result of "고기를 잡아". Then, you can infer that the speaker used "고기" as an ingredient of "찌개". If you write "고기를 잡고 찌개를 끓였다", then there can be no causality, because "-고" is used in many ways - not only showing causality, but also simply "and", so you may feel that it is ambiguous.
Other examples using "가지고":
On -나, we need to distinguish at least two different types of situation.
In type I, it is used between two equals.
A: 가 보았나?
B: 난 아직 못 가 보았네. A군, 자네는 가 보았나?
You see this type of use in the movies set against the sixties (perhaps) or earlier. It gives you the sense that both men are on terms of equality and mutual respect. (This does not ...
I've been told that essentially the more (으)시's you put in, the more polite you're being. As with English, if you go super-polite, you might be in danger of over-egging the pudding, or sounding insincere - but it will still make sense.
One '(으)시' is enough to show politeness:
선생님이 보내신 분 입니까?
선생님이 보낸 분 이십니까?
If you wanted to level up the politeness, ...
In general, 안 + Verb is a general "do not + Verb", whereas 못 + Verb means "can not + Verb"; however, 못하다 is much broader in meaning than the English "cannot", so that it is used instead of 안 in many cases where we will still use "do not" in "English.
Some examples of how 못하다 is used more broadly in Korean:
When you haven't done (haven't been able to do) ...
We could say 가지고 is a compound word of '가지다' + '고'.
Words or word forms ending with '고' usually have connective meaning: 그리고, ~하고, ~있고, ~주고, ~받고, ... Actually, we can append '고' to any(?) words.
가지다 could express: have, take, by means of, with, ...
That is, we can rewrite below sentence,
고기를 잡아 가지고 찌개를 끓였다. ([He] caught a fish and made jjigae (stew).)
(Disclaimer: I'm not an expert in Korean grammar, but just a native speaker.)
It transforms a verb into an adjective form that qualifies the following noun. In the case of "다할 때", it qualifies "때" which means time. "다할 때" therefore means "the time when (*) runs out".
Another example would be "마를 때", which comes from "마르다" (to dry) + "때". It means "time at ...
You can express "~ 않게 ~ 해 (Do(Be) something not to do(be) something)." For example:
미끄러지지 않게 조심해 (Watch you steps not to slip)!
사고나지 않게 (or 않도록) 조심해서 운전해 (Drive safely not to have a traffic accident).
다른 사람들 방해하지 않게 (or 않도록) 조용히 해 (Be quiet not to bother others).