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14

I have always considered 됐어요 to be a contraction of 되었어요. They are both equally correct forms of the past tense of the verb 되다. In spoken Korean, I use 됐어요 almost exclusively. In written Korean, I am more prone to use 되었다. Although there is no hard or fast rule on why this is, it is what feels most "correct." Just like in English, contractions are ...


10

These are actually the same story grammatically as the 좋다 versus 좋아하다 case. 싫다 means to be despicable or worthy of hate, to be awful. This is a descriptive verb. 싫어하다 means to hate; it is an action verb. Koreans commonly will say things like ”싫어!" when they want to express displeasure about something. It is almost like the English "this sucks.&...


8

Derivation of 좋아하다 좋다 is an adjective that means good. Appending the 하 to its infinitive form 좋아 creates a compound, where it is given a notion of feeling. Thus, 좋아하다 has a "raw" meaning of something like... to feel good about. Apply that to some object and one would quickly find that they like that thing. Hence ultimately, 좋아하다 has come to adopt the ...


8

Note: I am not Korean. So, there could be errors. But this is what I've accumulated so far. Which ones are gerunds, "other forms" of a verb, and complementizers? (으)ㅁ and 기 are the two forms here that differ the most. In short, 기 nominalizes a verb into a noun/action in a progressive state. Thus, it can be considered the gerund of Korean. Here is an ...


7

Sources: 한국어의 불규칙 활용 [Grammar] ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙 : ‘ㅂ’ irregular verb/adjective I tried searching the internet, but 돕다 and 곱다 likely seem to be the only irregularities (of ㅂ irregulars,) and I personally too can't think of any other similar examples. You could view the two as exceptional ones. Some explanations on the internet claim that this kind of exception occur ...


6

Causatives Your examples 죽이다 (to kill), 먹이다 (to feed), and 살리다 (to save), and 들리다 (to be heard, to 'make hear') aren't actually passive, but causative forms. Just to make the distinction clear in English: For a basic active verb 'die', the causative counterpart is 'kill', while the passive is 'to be killed'. Causatives aren't only formed with '이' - this ...


6

As I know, the -게 되다 ending changes the verb into passive. Not always, at least not in the English grammar sense of a passive verb form being one that shows that its grammatical subject is the "recipient" of an action, rather than the "doer" of an action - e.g. to kick is active, while to be kicked is passive. X-게 되다 doesn't necessarily mean that something ...


5

헛갈리다 - This is a word used to describe a situation where things are severely jumbled up to the point of indiscrimination. 헷갈리다 - This is a word used to describe the sensation of your mind in whirl, leaving you indecisive. It is also used to describe a situation all jumbled up in confusion. When it comes down to it, they are identical verbs. But in old ...


5

I want to add some more to Athony's answer. I would say there is no difference between 됐어요 and 되었어요 in conversation as they sound just identical if you speak quick enough. If I can imagine someone confessing his/her crime to Police, he/she may say in a very dark mood "의도한 것은 아니지만.... 그렇게.... 되었어요" Or, a teacher telling fairy tale to children may say "개구리가 ...


5

No, 하다 is the only verb that conjugates with 여. The reason is a bit grammatical. Think about regular and irregular verbs. Korean, just like English, has those 'irregular verbs' as well. When you change the form of a verb or an adjective, it is called 용언의 활용(conjugation of declinable word). If it changes regularly, then it is called 규칙 활용(regular ...


5

Yes there is. For example, 구글링 해 봐~ googling 구글 검색 해 봤어? / 구글에 검색해 봤어? Did you search on google? 구글에 쳐 봐 means literally typing on Google, but it actually means searching on Google. 검색 means to search. 구글링 is google + ing and Korean people use ing for when doing something (present participle) (I have 26 years of experience in Korean.)


5

I think 극복 will be the best word. 정복/정복하다 also means conquest/conquer, but is used more for conquests of war, conquering other countries, etc. 극복 is used for overcoming difficulties, fears, etc. Actually, 극복하다 is the verb and 극복 is the noun, but standing alone I think that the simpler noun form 극복 is much more appropriate. (If you wanted to use a verb you'd ...


5

비행기를 보는 사람이 많습니다. [pihaenggi-reul po-neun saram-i manh-seumni-da] Presumably, 이 is the verb "to be" Here, 이 is the subject marker. 많습니다 on its own conveys the full meaning of 'there are a lot', so there's no need for another verb 'to be'. 착륙하는 비행기가 많습니까? [ch'angnyuk'ha-neun pihaenggi-ga manh-seumni-kka] with the verb "to be" omitted ...


4

-네 is often used for poetic expression, but it is also used to express your confirmation of your feelings or the fact. For example, '오늘 날씨가 좋네.' -리라,아라/어라/여라, 리 are same and are used in South Korea too. You could see them in the North Korea's patriotic songs easily because they're used in the situation to express your wishes. -마 is little different than ...


4

Unfortunately, there is no single standard or common English language equivalent to 주동 as used in Korean linguistics, as it is considered to be the "root" form. Translations used for 주동사 include: principal verb basic form non-causative verb


4

I don't know how I should put this, so let me just give you possible constructions, both ambiguous ones and not. I know 나는 안다. I know. Pronoun “나” ― I. Marker “는” ― A subject marker. Verb “알다” ― To know. Ending conjugation “-ᆫ다” ― Describing the current status or fact.   나는 ……을/를 안다. I know ……. Marker “을/를” ― An object marker. (...


4

금하다 1) prohibit 도박을 금해야 한다 We should prohibit gambling. 술을 완전히 금하고 있다 I have wholly given up drinking. 2) contain emotion 그 소식을 들었을때, 기쁨을 금할 수 없었다. When I heard the news, I could not contain a joy = I could not hide a joy on my face = I was glad largely. @ 금할 수 없었다 = 금치 못했다. As Kohctahtnh Bah said, 금치 is a short form of 금하지. In my thought, almost ...


4

First, the choice of -다 as "base dictionary form" is, in a sense, an arbitrary convention. Unlike English, Korean verbs always require a suffix. You will never see someone just saying "많", "없", or "아름답". It's simply not grammatical at all - that's like someone saying "Engl" instead of English. Because of ...


4

For that lyrics, your translation is correct. But there are some cases where you can say 싫다/싫어 to mean 아니: when someone suggests you to do something, you can say "싫어/싫다/싫습니다/..." to mean 아니. It works like "(I) don't like (your idea/suggestion)". You can also say 좋아/좋다/좋습니다 to mean yes, but while 싫어 is a very common response, 좋아 is less ...


3

I believe they are the same word - 드시다 is just the honorific form of 들다 (which is rarely used with the meaning 'eat', except with the honorific 드시다 form).


3

There are quite a few future tense constructions in Korean, each with a slightly different nuance. -겠- I like to call this the "assertion future". This is the most general in terms of morphology. It can apply to first, second or third person, and can be used in any speech style. Like many other tenses, it isn't strictly "just future tense use&...


3

Korean verbing slang history It's a common thing in English to verb (I mean ‘verb’ as a verb.) nouns, no matter whether they can be actually done or not. For example, grenade is not a thing can be done, but we would be able to say this is like, my fifth time I've 'naded you. in CS: GO. In Korean, however, it isn't. Verbing un-doable nouns, is quite ...


3

I guess it indicates being a compound word. Because it is made of two compounds "들어"+"오다", sometimes you can even split the word and add something in between! 어서 들어들 와요. = 어서들 들어와요. = Please come in, you all. 나사가 (들어는 갔지만/들어가긴 했지만) 여전히 흔들흔들한다. = The screw did go in, but it's still moving a bit (i.e., it's still loose).


3

According to the Daum dictionary, http://dic.daum.net/word/view.do?wordid=kkw000235678&supid=kku000301188, '주리다' and '굶주리다' has same meaning. 주리다 : 1. 먹을 만큼 먹지 못하여 배를 곯다 In english, (I'm not sure this is perfect translation) starving because of not eating something enough For a reference, 곯다 is also similar word.


3

In more than 10 years of learning Korean, the source I've found which best explains 불규칙 (irregular conjunctions) is 'Korean Grammar in Use - Beginning' by Ahn, Lee and Han (Darakwan publishers, Seoul). Each chapter related to verbs marks irregular forms, and there are seven chapters at the end of the book dealing with each kind of irregular form, for example,...


3

The 아/어/여 주다 Pattern means that you are doing something for the benefit of someone. Think of cases where you would say ".... for me" or " for someone" in English. 말씀하시였다 - you said/told something. 말씀하시였다 - you said/told something for someone's benefit. (Perhaps you told them some useful information that they are grateful for.). Note that if the ...


3

Your second example is easier to explain in a logical way: 옷을 가져주십시오 Because 가지다 can mean 'carry' or 'keep', this could mean 'carry the clothes for me', or it could mean 'you keep the clothes'. 옷을 가져다주십시오 This is short for 옷을 가져다가 주십시오, and it is clearer because it refers to two specific actions - carry the clothes and (then) give them to me. So it'...


3

The form Verb + 아/어/여 있다 is used to indicate the continuance of a state or existence. When you live, you remain living. When you stand, you remain standing. It is used when a status has commenced and is still continuing on. Usually, this form is used in conjunction with passive voice: 앉아 있다. To be sitting. 누워 있어요. To be lying down. 쌓여 있어요. To be covered. 남아 ...


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