13

연세 should be definitely mentioned here. 연세 is a more polite form of 나이, and if you want to be super polite, you can say 연세가 많으시다 to mean "old". It's also a very common expression. It might seem odd at first, because you're elevating 연세 which is the subject, not whoever old. But there's a thing called indirect honorifics(간접높임법) which allows for this to work. ...


11

Kings in fiction, and kings in history sometimes used 짐 to refer to himself. This can be seen as elevated form of '나', but not necessarily. 짐 is also rare. The kings of Joseon dynasty used 나 primarily I believe. I've never seen or heard honorifics being used to explicitly elevate the speaker other than that. But if "lowering the listener" counts as "...


9

I think that rather than use honorifics on oneself, people of great rank or importance talk to others and about themselves using a lower form of speech (like 해라체 or 반말). One source I look to for this is the Bible. Even when God is speaking about Himself, he does not use honorifics. He uses 나는, 내가, 너희가, and so forth. These are all "low forms" of speech. God ...


8

In general, "당신" is a honorific expression indicating the listener, but the listener may be not close to the speaker. 당신의 이름이 무엇인지 알고 싶습니다. 당신을 기억하고 있겠습니다. However, "당신" can be a belittling term in specific situations. 당신이 뭔데 참견하십니까? "당신" can be used to represent great respect for the third person. 할머니는 종종 당신께서 손수 만드신 과자를 주시곤 하였다. See: 당신 ...


6

낡은 and 오래된 are used to describe objects being old, but never people. If you intend to express, use 나이가 많다, 연로하다, 늙다, 나이가 들다. 나이가 들다. It means a person starting to be old(entering the old age). Ex: 그 분은 나이가 들고 있습니다. 늙다 It tends to be used to mean a stage in life, and rarely used to describe an old individual. For example: 인간은 왜 늙고 죽을까요? -> Why would ...


6

You're mixing two slightly different aspects of speech. One (합쇼체: ~습니다/ㅂ니다) is more of a level of formality due to setting and the other(시) is a level of respect towards the subject of your sentences. ~세요 is simply a combination of 해요체(어/아요) and the honorific marker (시). Honorifics are only used towards people of higher status (i.e. older people, ...


6

It is not correct. In the cited post, '먹다' means "to eat food or drink", but '마음' is not food/drink. '잡수시다' and '드시다' can't be honorific expressions of "먹다" if the object is not food/drink. Instead, '먹다' can be used as "to have thoughts or emotions", so '먹으시다' is the right way to represent honor. 그분은 이제야 위기를 극복하려는 마음을 먹으셨다. cf. How about this sentence? ...


6

I think it is a difference of trend. Like @choco_addicted said, they can be interchanged but '잡수세요' is more antique expression. Nowadays most of young people use '드세요' and say '맛있게 드세요' or '저녁은 드셨어요?' to elder & formal situation. Not '맛있게 잡수세요'. Many elder people still using '잡수세요', but if you use that expression to Korean friends, maybe someone will ...


6

At least on the Web (Twitter, Instagram, and Google), these words are used in place of 오빠: oppa (English) オッパ (Japanese) โอปป้า (Thai) 欧巴 (Chinese) All of them sound almost the same as 오빠. I am quite certain that you heard her saying 欧巴 because 哥哥 (gēge) sounds totally different from 欧巴 (ōubā). In fact, 오빠 is in the lyrics of Gangnam Style and its video ...


5

There seems to be no honorific expression of 언니. {언니}는 여성끼리의 호칭어다. 앞서 확인한 다른 호칭어와 같이 친족 집단에서 사용되며 비 친족 집단에서 [친밀]의 공유를 중심으로 사용되는 공통점을 가진다. 하지만 다른 어휘소가 {형님}, {오라버니}, {누님}같은 확장 어휘소를 가지는 것과 달리 {언니}는 별도의 확장 어휘소가 없으며 [높임]을 표현할 때는 (3 "6")처럼 {형님}을 사용한다.1 Here (3 "6") is the sixth meaning of "형님". Reference 김광순 (2015). 친족어의 호칭어로서 확장ㆍ사용 양상. 한국어의미학, 48, 175-201.


5

Honorifics HON Are honorifics things you add to a word/sentence to raise the level of politeness/respect? Yes. Are honorifics different levels of politeness/respect of words/sentences? No. Should be called “honorific levels.” Do you add things to a word/sentence to make it honorific? Right. “The things” can be postpositions “께” and “께서” use of ...


4

They are both honorific ways to say '먹다' and can be interchanged. 아버지께서 진지를 드신다. 아버지께서 진지를 잡수신다.


4

There are 2 ways of expressing the honorific in Korean (3 actually, but one is limited to a few cases). Listener honorific (상대경어법): used to give respect to the person / people you're speaking to. There is a very complex system including 6-7 levels of speech. The listener honorific is expressed by the sentence endings: ㅂ니다, 요, etc. Subject honorific (...


4

You do not refer to a group that includes yourself in honorifics. (Basically, the rule of not honoring yourself trumps the rule of honoring the others.) Arguably, you address (speak to) such a group in honorifics. It may be easier to start with reference in isolation. Example 1 You have arrived with your parents at your sister's house and her young ...


4

I've been told that essentially the more (으)시's you put in, the more polite you're being. As with English, if you go super-polite, you might be in danger of over-egging the pudding, or sounding insincere - but it will still make sense. One '(으)시' is enough to show politeness: 선생님이 보내신 분 입니까? 선생님이 보낸 분 이십니까? If you wanted to level up the politeness, ...


4

One thing to keep in mind is that (1) ㄴ and ㅁ are common consonants and (2) polite expressions are usually longer. So, there's a good chance that a polite expression will contain either ㄴ or ㅁ. But I highly doubt that polite expressions contain more ㄴ/ㅁ than average. Let's just look at some regular-polite pairs: 나이 - 연세 말 - 말씀 주다 - 드리다 죽다 - 돌아가시다 아프다 - ...


4

There are the three factors for Korean honorific speech: (a) subject honorification, (b) object exaltation, and (c) speech styles. (You may refer to this.) Your question and example relate to the first one. These words belong to it: -(으)시- (meaning "-으시- or -시-") -께서 others used for honorific speech (-님, -분, 계시다, 잡수다, 주무시다, 아드님, 따님, 진지, 말씀, 댁, 생신, 춘추, ...) ...


3

This is also a confusing problem for most of the native Korean speakers. They will understand what you mean even if you use in a wrong way. But actually, there is a slight difference. 계시다 and 있으시다 are both honorific forms of 있다. But they are used in different situations. 계시다 is the honorific form of 있다 when 있다 is used as a verb or an auxiliary verb. 있으시다 is ...


3

When you say 우리 교수님 성함, you're omitting the possessive particle 의. (Which is totally fine, by the way.) Therefore, the topic particle should follow the actual subject - 성함 - not its possessive entity. So using 은 is correct here. Think of it like this. Your professor is respectable (A teacher/mentor is one of the three people who deserves the most respect ...


3

께서(는) is used on people who deserves a VERY HIGH respect. 성함(Family name) is a name, not a person, so it does not deserve any respect. Even though you are using 교수님, it is OK to use 이/가/은/는 instead of 께서(는), since, whether a professor deserves a very high respect, it depends on how you think. We usually use 께서는 when: The person CLEARLY deserves a very ...


3

If we want to show respect to someone who does something, we put 시 to the verb. But if the listener has higher rank than the person who is acting, we don't put 시. The situation is the same for 께서. 오래요 is a combination of 오라고 and 해요. In the first case, the second sentence is correct because 오시래요 is a combination of 오시라고 and 해요. In the second case, none of ...


3

"안녕히 계세요" is not too much formal yet shows respect! "주말 잘 보내세요" is also good in my opinion. As you wrote, "안녕히 계십시오" is too formal.


3

I did not leave an answer immediately because that kind of question usually arises when one is unable to distinguish between certain sounds, rather than when one does not know usage differences. English speakers who do not know Korean will transliterate both 시 and 씨 as si, but ㅅ and ㅆ sound clearly different to Koreans' ears. I would say that to ...


3

No, you can not use 계시다 for possession. 있으시다 is used instead. For reference 할아버지께 사과를 계세요 even if it would be used, it would be "가" or "는" instead of "를" (and usually 할아버지"는/가/께서"). 할아버지는 사과가 있으세요. Would be the most common form. Note that 사과 is technically the subject here, meaning that "계시다" would be ...


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