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According to this answer,

[Some country names] are borrowed from other languages, like 브라질 (Brazil) is borrowed from the English variant of Brasil, or 독일 is borrowed from the Japanese name for Germany.

as an English speaker it's easy for me to recognize the names borrowed from English, but what other country names are borrowed from Japanese?

7

독일(獨逸) - Germany, from Japanese (ドイツ doitsu), ultimately from German Deutsch

화란(和蘭) - Netherlands, from Japanese (オランダ oranda), ultimately from Papiamento Hulanda

불란서(佛蘭西) - France, from Japanese (フランス furansu), ultimately from French France

노서아(露西亞) - Russia, from Japanese (ロシア roshia), ultimately from Russian Россия (Rossiya)

지나(支那) - China, from Japanese (シナ shina), ultimately from Sanskrit Cina

구라파(歐羅巴) - Europe, from Japanese (ヨーロッパ yōroppa), ultimately from Portuguese Europa

Note that everything except 독일 is considered old-fashioned and rarely used nowadays.

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  • 1
    What about 호주 for Australia? – topo Reinstate Monica Jan 16 '17 at 23:24
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    @topomorto 호주(濠洲) is apparently from Chinese. Although Modern Chinese write Australia with 澳(ào), it used to be in the range of 濠斯太剌利亜, 濠斯太良利亜, 豪斯多剌里亜, 豪斯多辣里洲, and many others, all of which sounds close to Australia in Chinese, but quite different in Japanese. – Taegyung Aug 5 '19 at 13:24

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