5

비행기를 보는 사람이 많습니다. [pihaenggi-reul po-neun saram-i manh-seumni-da] Presumably, 이 is the verb "to be" Here, 이 is the subject marker. 많습니다 on its own conveys the full meaning of 'there are a lot', so there's no need for another verb 'to be'. 착륙하는 비행기가 많습니까? [ch'angnyuk'ha-neun pihaenggi-ga manh-seumni-kka] with the verb "to be" omitted ...


4

"저는 여기가 처음이에요" actually has a very interesting structure, called 서술절: it seems this term is translated into English as "predicative clause" or "predicate clause". Basically, "여기가 처음이에요" (literally, "this place is the first", or "this place is a first experience") is an inner clause, but then the clause itself acts like a verb for the outer subject, 저. In ...


4

Usually words that end in 는 are "subjects" or "adjectives". It's probably worth distinguishing between two completely different '는' you will see (i.e. they are homonyms - they look the same, but are different constructions with different meanings). The first one is one form of the 은/는 'Topic marker'. This marks the topic, or the thing that you want to draw ...


4

This might be distinct from the three you mention. See the second element in each of the following: 나는 배가 아프다. (Literally, 'I am sick of the abdomen,' but meaning, 'My stomach hurts') 미영이는 마음씨가 곱다. ('Miyoung is of a good disposition.') 그 산골은 숲이 울창하다. ('That mountain valley is thickly wooded.') I would compare these to: He is hard of ...


3

"그 여자 예뻐요" can be considered as a shortened form of "그 여자가 예뻐요". Therefore, there is almost no meaning difference (가 is optional). However, in a formal (and often informal) writing, "그 여자가 예쁘다." is far more frequent than "그 여자 예쁘다." In a conversation, either way is OK (both are well used).


3

Omg... Why do you want to know about the twelve meanings? I mean, why do you need that? I think many Koreans don't know about that. I heven't heard '은/가' has 12 meanings!!! haha. Unless you are not to be a Korean linguist, I just wanna give you more simple explanation. 은,는,이,가 are used as a 'maker of the agent' and sometimes we can omit it. Forget about ...


2

Saying that the -는 ending creates an adjective can be a bit confusing. Technically, it creates a participle, which is the form of the verb which acts like an adjective, that is, by modifying a following noun. These are primarily used in Korean to create relative clauses, for example: 멀리 보는 사람들이 성공할 수 있다 People who see far ahead can be successful Here,...


2

Topic particle can be added to a place, given that a place is the subject or object of the sentence. Ex: 서울은 인구가 많은 도시이다. Wrong: 서울에 인구가 많은 도시이다. The second is wrong since Seoul is the subject of the sentence. (Namely, the sentence is describing Seoul) The second sentence would mean: "A city which many population live in Seoul. " Which is strange. In ...


2

Q1. There could be a number of motivations. In A1-5, it is possible to use 가, 는 or no particle at all. 는 is used to give the effect of contrast or comparison. It is like saying "How about exit six then, where would that be?" 는 is (perhaps) used to make the question more polite by making it seem less important. We don't know the exact reason without knowing ...


1

"오늘은 일찍 왔어요" is similar to "Today I came early." You probably wouldn't say that if you come early every day: the sentence implies that it's something worth talking about.[1] At the same time, it doesn't emphasize anything being unusual. (For example, maybe today I came early because it's Tuesday and I come early every Tuesday.) "...


1

누구예요 can't have subject marker (-가) because -가 is not compatible with -예요. Consider the basic form: X는/X가 Y예요. = X is Y. E.g., [이 책]은 [제 거]예요. / [이 책]이 [제 거]예요. Here, X is the subject. In English, Y is called "predicative complement (PC)" (보어) - not sure if it's also how Y is called in official Korean grammar, but you can see that it's ...


1

-을 after time duration usually gives a sense that this time duration is a fresh topic that is being brought up. I don't consider this -을 to be object marker. For instance, if someone asked you about how long you've been living in Korea, then you would usually say: 2년 살았어 or 2년동안 살았어. It's without -을 with time duration because the duration was the topic of ...


1

Why is 여기 the subject? Shouldn't "I"(저) be the subject? Because, as other users have said, the sentence has two subjects. Why is 여기 a subject in sentence A but not the subject in sentence B? Because 여기 is a (pro)noun is sentence A and an adverbial in sentence B.


1

이/가 is used to "mark" the subject (preceding 가) that you're attempting to direct a little more attention to. Often omitted. 은/는 is a "stronger" marker, I would say. It can be used to direct your listener's/reader's attention to what the overarching topic is that you're going to talk, perhaps at some length, about. It is also used to contrast. 이 컴퓨터(가) ...


1

The subject marker 이/가 is for new information or focusing on subject. The topic marker 은/는 is an auxiliary particle 보조사 and can replace 주격조사 이, 가. It is for old information, contrast/comparison or focusing on description. 저기 집이 있습니다. 그 집은 산 위에 있습니다. 누가 파티에 갔어? -> 지민이가 파티에 갔어 (focus on the subject) 지민이 뭐 해? -> 지민이는 파티에 갔어. (focus on the description)


1

Those terms, subject markers and topic markers, do not reflect the other use of 이/가 and 은/는. I would not use them. A1: Let's assume that you are talking to your close friend. 내 남동생이 예전에 노란 카나리아 한 마리를 키웠었는데, 아빠가 실수로 죽였어. You are talking about the actions your younger brother and your father did on the yellow canary (You are not contrasting your brother with ...


1

Please read these examples first and read my long answer given below. 6번 출구는 어디로 가야 하나요? (✘) This is an incorrect sentence because it has to be the same as either "6번 출구는 제가 어디로 가야 하나요?" or "6번 출구는 우리가 어디로 가야 하나요?". This 6번 출구 is kind of isolated from any other word in the sentence. The implicit/omitted subject of 가다 must be a person (&...


1

Reference : 관용 표현과 이중 주어 Usage expression and double subject (1) Chulsoo has a long leg. ㄱ. 철수가 다리가 길다. ㄱ'. 다리가 철수가 길다. It has two subjects and switching is possible. (2) Kim boss showed his shame. ㄱ. 김사장이 꼬리가 밟혔다. ㄱ'. 꼬리가 김사장이 밟혔다. (wrong) Switching is impossible. By changing a helping word, the following is possible. ㄱ''. 김사장의 꼬리가 밟혔다. (3) ...


1

Since they're the fundamentals of our language, it's hard to explain their usage. It's very hard- so hard that even we don't understand and sometimes make mistakes when using them. EDIT: This means this is tricky part and we (learners and native speakers alike) have to be careful with particles. 은/는/이/가/을/를 are the basic particles that shape our thoughts ...


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