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문화어 is largely based on the early 20th-century central dialect of Korean. The distinction between 차 and 챠 (처 and 쳐, 쵸 and 초, 자 and 쟈, etc) were already long gone in the central dialect (which includes Seoul and Pyongyang) in the 20th century. Before Korea's division, in the 1933 orthography reform (한글 마춤법 통일안), which both 표준어 and 문화어 standard orthographies ...

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