5

Thing about Korean is that, besides the formality stuff, your desired tone and nuances can also determine what ending you use. For instance, if I were to ask where the train is going: 기차가 어디로 가요? 기차가 어디로 가나요? 기차가 어디로 갈까요? All three forms are technically possible (I'll explain the 3rd one in a bit). The difference between first and second is in your ...


4

...나 싶다 is used when the main verb is guessed by the speaker. For instance, if the person went out thinking the guests were coming, they might say: 손님들이 오나 싶어서, 밖에 나가 봤어요 To express "I felt as if I were never that way": 내가 언제 그랬나 싶었어 It's common to think "If you have seen one, you think you may know them all": 하나를 보면 전체를 알 수 있지 않나 싶다 In the case ...


4

First, the choice of -다 as "base dictionary form" is, in a sense, an arbitrary convention. Unlike English, Korean verbs always require a suffix. You will never see someone just saying "많", "없", or "아름답". It's simply not grammatical at all - that's like someone saying "Engl" instead of English. Because of ...


4

Korean: A Comprehensive Grammar links -나(요) to -ㄴ가(요)/-은가(요), with -나(요) being slightly more common for action (or as they call them, "processive") verbs. It is given the name "dubitative questions" there, which gives a hint as to how they are used. By making the speaker's attitude doubtful or dubious, it is softened (부드럽다) and so more amenable to all sorts ...


4

I reworked the answer. Deleted anything doubtful, confusing or not on point. Added a segment on 'generality.' Doubt. Upshot: Both '하나요?' and '해요?' can be straightforward inquiry implying no expectation of the answer going one way or the other. '해요?' is suitable for signaling an expectation or desire to confirm. (Note: This is nothing special about '해요?' ...


3

Catomic's answer showed many good examples of using -다고 inside a sentence, so I'll just talk about using it at the end of the sentence. If you end a sentence with -다고 (or -라고/-자고/-냐고), I think it almost always quotes the speaker's own speech. E.g., imagine a noisy place: A: 저녁 먹으러 갈까? B: 벌써 먹었는데. A: 응, 뭐라고? B: 벌써 먹었다고. (= (I said) I already ate dinner.) ...


2

-ㅂ니다 is for being polite to the person you are talking with, while -시- is for being polite to the person you are talking about. Let me give you some examples: if A and B are having a conversation and A said: "김 선생은 차 타고 서울로 갑니다": then A is being polite to B. Also, in principle, B is considered superior (or at least not inferior) to 김 선생, but we don'...


2

-대 is simply an abbreviation of -다고 해 in Korean. For example: 철수가 밥을 먹었다고 해요. 철수가 밥을 먹었대요. Check out the answer of the National Institute of the Korean Language(국립국어원): '-대' is an abbreviation of '-다고 해', which is used to tell people what others said, and not what you experienced.


2

These two are totally different from each other. 기로 하다 하다 here is denoting the word 결정하다(decide), so you will often see sentences like the following: 설거지를 하기로 (결정)했다. I decided to wash the dishes. So 기로 하다 should mean "decide to..." 마음먹다 is the same as 결심하다, and can be used in the above case too. (으)려 하다 하다 here is usually the contraction of 노력하다(...


2

Even the use of 으려 has a "degree" to it. If you are plain old "going caroling" you would just say it (or maybe use the future tense 하겠다, or leave room for fate to change your plans 을것같다): 크리스마스 캐롤링을 한다. 크리스마스 캐롤링을 하겠다. 크리스마스 캐롤링을 할것 같다. I go Christmas caroling. If you are expecting that "going caroling" will have some issue ...


2

I am not an expert, but I will just leave here what I have found. For 겸양법 (Some people call it "object honorification," but I am not sure whether it is a proper translation), Middle Korean had these three characters that were attached to verb stems when the endings started with a consonant (ㅂ became ㅸ when the endings started with a vowel): ᄉᆞᆸ (...


1

Your intuition is along the right track. The spelling of Middle Korean is well documented, and it was evidently a much more agglutinative language: in summary, it is descended from the Middle Korean -ᅀᆞᇦᄂᆞᅌᅵ- (Yale: -zopno.ngi-) In Middle Korean, as well as the "slot" of subject/addressee honorification 시 (which hasn't changed much since), there is also a "...


1

하다 has a sense of 'to say.' If Youngjoo says: 만수가 똑똑하다 (Mansoo is smart) reporting it would have the base form of: 영주가 만수가 똑똑하다고 하다 (Youngjoo says Mansoo is smart) which may become, depending on the level of respect for the addressee: 영주가 만수가 똑똑하다고 해. 영주가 만수가 똑똑하다고 해요. 영주가 만수가 똑똑하다고 합니다. which respectively contract to 영주가 만수가 똑똑하대....


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