Can each of the Korean speech levels be categorised as 반말 or 존댓말?
하십시오체(합쇼체), 하오체, 해요체 are 존댓말, 하게체, 해라체, 해체 are 반말. It's that simple.
Do 반말 and 존댓말 classification relate more to formality(격식), or politeness(높임)?
Politeness, as you can see from the table.
Do they relate to the usage honorifics such as the honorific particle, or honorific ...
MujjinGun's answer is excellent, but if I may add, you could think like this if you get confused whether a sentence is in 반말 or 존댓말: In modern Korean, anything besides 해요체 and 합쇼체 (하십시오체) is in 반말.
하오체 is 존댓말, strictly speaking, but is not used anymore. (하오체 was popular on the internet about 15 years ago, but that's gone too.)