5

Thing about Korean is that, besides the formality stuff, your desired tone and nuances can also determine what ending you use. For instance, if I were to ask where the train is going: 기차가 어디로 가요? 기차가 어디로 가나요? 기차가 어디로 갈까요? All three forms are technically possible (I'll explain the 3rd one in a bit). The difference between first and second is in your ...


4

Korean: A Comprehensive Grammar links -나(요) to -ㄴ가(요)/-은가(요), with -나(요) being slightly more common for action (or as they call them, "processive") verbs. It is given the name "dubitative questions" there, which gives a hint as to how they are used. By making the speaker's attitude doubtful or dubious, it is softened (부드럽다) and so more amenable to all sorts ...


4

I reworked the answer. Deleted anything doubtful, confusing or not on point. Added a segment on 'generality.' Doubt. Upshot: Both '하나요?' and '해요?' can be straightforward inquiry implying no expectation of the answer going one way or the other. '해요?' is suitable for signaling an expectation or desire to confirm. (Note: This is nothing special about '해요?' ...


3

When you say 우리 교수님 성함, you're omitting the possessive particle 의. (Which is totally fine, by the way.) Therefore, the topic particle should follow the actual subject - 성함 - not its possessive entity. So using 은 is correct here. Think of it like this. Your professor is respectable (A teacher/mentor is one of the three people who deserves the most respect ...


3

께서(는) is used on people who deserves a VERY HIGH respect. 성함(Family name) is a name, not a person, so it does not deserve any respect. Even though you are using 교수님, it is OK to use 이/가/은/는 instead of 께서(는), since, whether a professor deserves a very high respect, it depends on how you think. We usually use 께서는 when: The person CLEARLY deserves a very ...


2

No, you can't add it to everything. For example you can't add it certain (for lack of a better word) 'standard' endings such as (스)ㅂ니다, (십)시오, (으)ㅂ시다, (어/아/여)라, (는)구나, 게, (이)오, and a few things like that. But you can add it to a lot of things. By the way, when you add it to a noun, you should use 이요 after a consonsant ending.


2

It is your choice. The most common style called 일기체 is to make declarative sentences end with 다 as the following: 어제 친구와 영화관에 갔다. (past) 내일은 학교에 간다. (future, with certainty) 다음 주에는 서울에도 가고 부산에도 갈 예정이다. (future plans) Other types of sentences and quotations may end with other endings, but I will not list them here because I cannot generalize personal ...


1

I think, in this context, 그렇게 and 이렇게 doesn't make much difference. For example, let's consider this fragment (changed the last word to make it easier to explain): "어디 가는가?" 그렇게 말하는 [것] = speaking like "어디 가는가?" Here, "어디 가는가?" is the quotation. And then the following "그렇게 말하는" describes the sentence just quoted: &...


1

jondaemal of noun : 밥 -> 식사, 진지, 아침, 점심 또는 저녁 jondaemal of verb : Usually, we use 요. But there are irregular case : 먹다 -> 드시다 마시다 -> 드시다 (1) 엄마 : 아들, 밥 먹었어? 아들 : 네. 엄마는 밥먹었어요 ? (2) 교수 : 자네, 식사 했나 ? 학생 : 네. 저는 밥 먹었습니다. 교수님은 점심 드셨나요 ? In social relation, usually we can not use 먹다, 마시다 to older. We can use only 드시다. For instance, 커피 드셨어요 ? But ...


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