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7

First, Hangeul was not originally written as Kanji. Kanji is the term for Chinese characters used in the Japanese language; Hanja is the term for these characters used in Korean language. Hangeul is another writing system for Korean. 不 actually has 2 pronunciations in Korean: 불 and 부. This can be traced back to Middle Chinese, where the pronunciation ...


4

It means: Instead of "뭐라고?", you can also say "어?" with voice raised at the end. Probably it's best to consider that "하면서" is omitted after "'어?'라고". "뭐라고?"라는 말을 대신하려면 = in order to replace the phrase "뭐라고?" "어?"라고 [하면서] 끝을 올리(면) = say "어?" and raise the end -면 됩니다 = [you] ...


3

'을' is an object particle(목적격/대격 조사). In that case, '펜' should be an object, and we need a transitive verb. In the sentence '있다' seems to have the meaning 'to have', but lexically it just means 'to exist' or 'to be'. Thus '있다' does not require an object. the correct sentence should be either 저는 펜을 가지고 있어요 or 저는 펜이 있어요


3

1. ~적이다 can go with 한자어 공격적이다 - correct 공격스럽다 - wrong 공격답다 - makes sense 공격 is neither a feeling, an object nor a person, but an act. 공경적이다 - makes sense, not common though 공경스럽다 - wrong 공경답다 - makes sense 공경 is neither a feeling, an object nor a person, but an act. 2. ~스럽다 can go with abstract concept, feeling, or an object 사랑적이다 - wrong 사랑스럽다 - ...


3

@jick answer is great, but to supplement "뭐라고?" mean "pardon?"(It is the same until raising the end note) "어?" mean "eh?" Neither is formal.


3

기분이 좋아요 is a kind of in-between case. It is primarily used for the first person but also for the third person sometimes (e.g. 영철이는 오늘 기분이 좋아요). This is one difficulty aspect with the emotional words. We can't blindly lump all emotion words in the same group - there are some that are used a little differently. For your sentence, we can say it a few different ...


3

This (해서 해요) isn't actually a verb pattern; it's two separate clauses, the second clause consisting only of "해" (meaning "do"). (The first clause, 집안일을 전담해서, includes the ~아/어서 pattern, which gives a cause or reason for doing what follows). 전담하다 means "take responsibility for", so the ending means "take responsibility for ...


3

X-에게 있어 (or 있어서, the original form before contraction) signifies "considering it from the standpoint of X" or "as it pertains to X". X-에게 있어서 = X-에게 (to X) 있다 (belongs/pertains) + -아/어서 (as). (It sets the basis of the discussion to X) It is a literary phrase which might be translated as "for X", "when it comes to X", ...


2

Although @user17915 already confirmed in a comment that your assumption is basically correct, I'll try to add a little more based on my experience. First two comments: In common usage you will more often see/hear ~기는 in the contracted form ~긴. You will also see this construction but with the original verb repeated instead of 하다. In your example, this would ...


2

The order is important here: "XX해 오다" means "to do XX and come (with its result)". E.g., 낚시하러 가서 메기 한 마리를 잡아왔다 = Went to fishing and came back with a catfish. 배고파서 나가서 간식을 사왔다 = Was hungry, so [I] went out and bought some snack (and came back with it). So "연습을 해 오다" means "practice and then come (with something to show ...


2

Both 테니스를 같이 칩시다 and 같이 테니스를 칩시다 are correct. In actual spoken conversation, it is even possible to omit ~를 and say 테니스 같이 칩시다, or even 테니스 칩시다.


2

They are negated in the same way as predicates in full sentences: “___ 하는 사람” becomes “___ 안 하는 사람” or “하지 않은 사람” for example. For your example in particular, I might translate it as follows. As an example of a full sentence: “He didn’t do anything wrong” “그는 잘못 없다” So your clause could be “잘못 없는 사람들” Note that your example makes use of 없다 which is its own ...


2

1. mustn't 해서는 안 된다 하지 말아야 한다 하면 (절대) 안 된다 etc. E.g. 살인해서는 안 된다. 살인하지 말아야 한다. 살인하면 안 된다. 2. don't have to (하지 않아도/안 해도) (좋다/된다/괜찮다/...) 할 필요(가/는) 없다 etc. etc. E.g. 방을 청소할 필요는 없다. 방 청소 안 해도 된다. 방을 청소하지 않아도 괜찮다.


2

As for your second question, 없인 is simply the contracted form of 없이는. This kind of contraction can be done any time you use 는 if the preceding syllable ends in a vowel. 운전 does mean drive, so "오직, 운전만 하세요" means "Just drive" or "Only drive." The meaning of this text seems to be: There are important people in your life, and just ...


2

It's well answered already, but I'd like to make some more comments. First of all, it is a common phrase as whole, so 있네 is not usually used as shown in this context. While it is identical to -ing in English, it is a bit unnatural to say this: 하네 is from 하다 (dictionary form) and it can be used as 한다 which is present tense, and considering honorifics and the ...


2

In general, as Jairo A. del Rio said in the comment, -고 있다/-고 계신다 means someone is currently doing something. For example: 아버지는 지금 주무시고 계십니다. (주무시다=자다): Father is sleeping. 철수는 뛰고 있다. Cheol-soo is running. For 웃기는 소리 하고 있네, 웃기는 소리 "funny sounds" in this phrase actually means "nonsense" or "bullshit". So the phrase 웃기는 소리 하고 있네, ...


2

Korean is an agglutinative language, which means there are many endings that can be added onto words - especially verbs and adjectives. Therefore, when encountering words and learning them, it's important to recognize the base form, and also learn how to add endings. In this case, the base of 어린 is 어리, an adjective / descriptive verb meaning "to be ...


2

The answer is yes. -ㄴ지 -nji 뒤에 오는 말의 내용에 대한 막연한 이유나 판단을 나타내는 연결 어미. A connective ending used to indicate an ambiguous reason or judgment about the following statement. E.g. 어찌나 비싼지 차마 그 물건을 살 수 없었다. 동생이 계단에서 넘어져 다친 건 아닌지 걱정이 되더군요. 집에 가는 길에 불량 청소년인지 어떤 학생이 나에게 시비를 걸었어. 가: 결혼한 아들 집에 다녀오셨다면서요? 나: 응. 우리 아들이랑 며느리가 얼마나 부지런한지 집 안이 아주 깨끗하더라고. -는지 -neunji 뒤에 오는 말의 ...


2

As is mentioned in the comments, the translation would come out to be something along the lines of: I sent the letter without the meeting address on it because of my hurriedness. The ~느라고 ending on 보내다 tells you that something negative will occur because of the following through of the verb (sending it hurriedly, 급하게 보내느라고). The ㄴ 채 simply points more to ...


2

They have completely different constructions and meanings, and the former one (“내일 뭐 할게요?”) is unusual. 내일 뭐 할(“하-”verb stem “do”+“-ㄹ”modifier) 거예요(“거”nominal marker “to”+“이-”copula “be”+“-에요”honorific ending)? “내일 뭐 할 거예요?” is an ordinary question. “What are (you) doing tomorrow?” 내일 뭐 할게요(“하-”verb stem “do”+“-ㄹ게”ending with willingness+“요”honorific ...


2

It is an advanced subject, and some sentences listed as correct in the book (I did a google search and saw other examples) are not really natural, which makes the discussion more complicated. The main point about these examples is what we call First Person Emotion Adjectives. A class of adjectives, like 기쁘다, 슬프다, 부끄럽다, 안타깝다, and many more, are specialized ...


2

내어 놓다 and 내다 놓다 are very close in meaning, but they are two different constructs. 내어 놓다 = 내다 + -아/어 놓다 -> 내어놓다 (it has actually become a single word 내어놓다 with no space in it, and it usually contracts to 내놓다) 내다 놓다 = 내다 + -아/어다가 + 놓다 -> 내어다가 놓다 -> 내다가 놓다 -> 내다 놓다. -아/어다(가) is a verb ending that signifies one action immediately being followed by ...


2

Yes, rewriting them that way would be correct. Aside from the meaning of "Because", "아/어 사" Can be used in the following ways: As a clause connector in which the second action occurs after the first (similar to 고). This is usually added to 오다 and 가다: 우리는 집에 와서 바로 잤어요: We came home and went to sleep immediately 저는 당근을 칼로 잘라서 냉장고에 넣었어요: I ...


2

As far as I know, there is no difference. 으로 in the first example is just a shortened form of 으로서. 으로 seems to be much more common than 으로서 these days. (으)로서 is defined in the dictionary as "지위나 신분 또는 자격을 나타내는 격 조사". The first example is clearly using 으로 to indicate 자격 (like "as"). The second one is not as obvious as the first one, but ...


2

I don't know much about the TOPIK rules, but I'll give you my opinion about the subject. It seems to me the TOPIK rule is just advising against using colloquial abbreviations rather than all abbreviations. Certain abbreviations are primarily intended to make informal speech smoother and shorter, and thus don't sound too good if used in writing. 게 for 것이, 걸 ...


2

There is no need of using 을 before 하고 in this sentence. 하고 is a postpositional particle, which is attached to a noun or noun phrase. It indicates a behavior is done with someone as a partner. 을 is also a postpositional particle which indicates the noun is used as the objective case of the sentence. You can only use one postpositional particle after a noun. ...


2

As was mentioned in the comment, they are the same. Naver Korean dictionary gives the exact same explanation for the two words.


2

The form -ㄹ 테다 expresses expectation or intention. In practice, its most common usages are in the context of 텐데(요), 테면, and 테니(까). However, as you point out, it can be used more directly in the infinitive form of 테다 (although the other forms are more common in practice). Usually, when it is used in this way, it is the first person imperative. 안 줄 테야 (I will ...


1

사람들에 대한 조사를 했다 vs 사람들에 대해 조사했다 I agree that both are natural for daily uses. However, for formal occassions where conciseness matters, the latter serves better. We usually avoid saying ~를 했다 for verbs when there is a shorter counterpart. But as you know, in casual conversations, it doesn't really matter.


1

I can't make better translations because I don't know what original meaning was so I will just give you some awkward points. 강력한 발전을 달성했으며 - We don't usually use 달성 to 발전 지난 25년간에, 베트남과 한국의(양국의) 관계는 정치, 경제, 협력 개발, 문화, 국민 교류 등 모든 분야에서 빠르고 견고하고 전면적으로 발전해 나가고 있습니다. - You are starting the sentence with past 25 years but it ends with -고 있습니다(present progressive) ...


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