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22

Using ㅍ for all /f/ sounds is the standard, and should be preferred. Using 후/호 for /f/ sounds comes from Japanese. Japanese doesn't have /f/, rather they have /ɸ/. So they use /ɸ/ for transliterating /f/ sounds from English. Korean doesn't have /ɸ/, so we use the closest sound to tranliterate from Japanese, which is 후/호(/hw/). So "family"(/fӕməli/) became ...


19

Spaces should be put between every word, Except: There should be no space between a particle(marker) word and the word that it modifies: 집 에서 처럼(X) 집에서처럼(O) Space between the main verb and the auxillary verb is optional: 불이 꺼져 간다.(O) 불이 꺼져간다.(O) 2.5. Except when the main verb has a particle or is a compound word, in this case the space is mandantory: ...


12

In short: "오다" and "가다" represent the speaker's viewpoint, while "I come" and "I go" represent the listener's. So when ㄱ is asking ㄴ to come over and ㄴ responds, it would be like: ㄱ: 여기로 와줄래요? (lit. "Would you come over here?") ㄴ: 지금 갈게요! (lit. "Going right now!") while in English it would be: ㄱ: ...


12

In English, "remain" is a state verb, describing the current state, so it's natural to think that the Korean word 남다, often translated as "remaining", is the same. However, I think it's best to think of it as an action verb, "to leave over". Then: 사과 4개 남았어요 means that 4 apples have been left (and are therefore remaining). Another example would be ...


11

One big grammatical difference between adjective verbs is in the participle endings (which turn the verb / adjectives into modifiers). For verbs, there are 4 participle endings: Past -ㄴ/은, Present -는, Future -ㄹ/을 and respective past -던: 밥 먹은 사람 (The person who ate the rice) 밥 먹는 사람 (the person who eats rice) 밥 먹을 사람 (the person who will eat rice) ...


10

My suggestion is Korean Grammar In Use series, you have to start with book 1 (beginning to early intermediate). This book series is written in English, but the examples and practices are in Korean. Each lesson begins with some example sentences, some explanations about the grammatical point, then some example sentences used in conversations, and then ends ...


10

Okay, while @ting-choe has my gratitude for something that may level me up (my wife says I will "never understand" 김소월의 진달래꽃 - I think some "easier" poems (for my level) are in order here (and my Korean wife can recite these, too, so they must not be random). **산토끼** 산토끼 토끼야 어디를 가느냐 깡총깡총 뛰면서 어디를 가느냐 산고개 고개를 나혼자 넘어서 토실토실 알밤을 주워 올테야 **닭** 귀여운 꼬마가 닭장에 가서 암탉을 ...


9

That's correct. Like it's other connective counterpart, 어서/아서, it both can provide reason for something and conjoin two clauses in sequence. In (으)니까's case, however, this sequential conjoining can be translated as "When (I) [first clause], I discovered/realized that [second clause]". Thus, for your sentence 집에 도착하니까 비가 내리기 시작했다 a translation would be "...


9

It doesn't sound grammatical to me, but I think they're trying to hard to sound "polite" by avoiding a command (imperative) form altogether. There are some such "over-polite" expressions that sound icky to many Koreans yet persist among Korean service providers. The most notorious example is putting "-시" to every subject. For example: 커피 나오셨습니다, or 이 ...


9

진달래꽃 - 김소월 나 보기가 역겨워 가실 때에는 말없이 고이 보내 드리우리다 영변에 약산 진달래꽃 아름 따다 가실 길에 뿌리우리다 가시는 걸음 걸음 놓인 그 꽃을 사뿐히 즈려밟고 가시옵소서 나 보기가 역겨워 가실 때에는 죽어도 아니 눈물 흘리우리다 If someone doesn't know this poem, he or she is not South Korean. Here is a link to the translation for this poem https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Sowol


9

The citation form of a verb is a particularly specific construct, tied to the requirements of a dictionary user. For inflecting languages such as Korean, it is very important that the user can deduce the citation form of the verb from any conjugated form found "in the wild". In the case of modern Korean, the citation form is a very simple but slightly ...


8

Modern Korean generally follows the spacing conventions of English. A space should come after every Part of Speech but there are lots of exceptions, particularly in the case of spacing between modifiers (adj, adv) and nouns. The official rules on spacing promulgated by the National Institute of Korean Language (NIKL) can be found here (warning, the link is ...


8

Note: I am not Korean. So, there could be errors. But this is what I've accumulated so far. Which ones are gerunds, "other forms" of a verb, and complementizers? (으)ㅁ and 기 are the two forms here that differ the most. In short, 기 nominalizes a verb into a noun/action in a progressive state. Thus, it can be considered the gerund of Korean. Here is an ...


8

As a native Korean, X(으)로부터 feels like that a certain event or object originates from, arises from, or occurs because of X, whereas X에게서/한테서 feels just like the plain old English word 'from' with slightly limited usages. E.g., There are many views that says the recent subprime mortgage crisis occured because of the prevalent moral hazard in the financial ...


8

One ending that expresses that is the ending -ㄹ라: 넘어질라! (Careful you don't fall!) 늦을라! (Careful, you're going to be late!) 다칠라! (Careful, you'll get hurt!) I've heard this mostly with adults talking to children. I'm not sure if it would be OK to use in other situations. Reference: 어미 조사 사전 (이희자 이종희 지음) Regarding Edit 1: Instead of 부수다, I think the verb ...


8

I don't know about the "why" part, but one way to think of them is that these verbs require objects. And it doesn't have to be the exact word 춤 or 꿈. For example: 축제에서 디스코를 췄어요. [I] danced a disco(?) in a festival. 사람들은 음악에 맞춰 왈츠를 추었다. People waltzed to the music. 지아는 악몽을 꾸었습니다. Jia had a nightmare. ...although I think "무용을 췄어요" is ...


8

오랜 means 'a long time' and 이에요 is the present tense form of the verb 이다. So far so good. So far not so good, 오랜 does not mean "a long time". It's an attributive, not a noun. It can only be used to modify other nouns. The English equivalent would be "old" or "long-time" as an adjective. 오랜 시간 = a long time 오랜 친구 = an old ...


8

I think there is a lexical sensitivity to the choice between 에게 and the more formal and universal 에 의하여 (for 'by'). That is to say, most any active form can go into the passive and take 에 의하여. Your examples would become: 수프가 요리사에 의하여 섞이다. 문이 남자에 의하여 닫히다. But only a subset of verbs can take 에게 (or more colloquially 한테) in addition to 에 의하여. I ...


8

I'm a South Korean. "해할 자리에 쓰여, 장차 어떤 일을 하려고 하는 스스로의 의사를 나타내거나 상대편의 의사를 묻는 데 쓰이는 종결 어미." This sentence is quite difficult to understand even for me. We normally don't study Korean like this. Anyways, I want to give you some examples. (3) 나 밥 먹을래 : I wanna/will eat a meal. (4) 너 밥 먹을래? : Do you want to have a meal? (3) 나 집에 갈래 : I wanna/will go home. - ...


7

Good afternoon! In short: "그" can be either male or female, but these days usually male. "그녀" is always female. I'm a native Korean in the early 30s. When I was young, "그" was used for both male and female. But gradually people started to use "그녀" for female only and "그" for male only. Yet still there are many people who use "그" for both male and female, ...


7

To answer the very question asked, why would we not just use 는/은 for that (그 것은 알고 싶다 , 사과는 먹고 싶어요)? that's because it would sound very strange. I can assure you that no native speaker would say 그것은 알고 싶다 in isolation. He might say: 그것은 알고 싶고, 이것은 알고 싶지 않다. Here the contrast justifies 은 and 는. I find your hypothesis of 그것이 or 사과가 acting as de ...


7

X-답다: be like X, be worthy of X From my textbook: '-답다'는 명사 뒤에 붙어서 자신의 본래 특성을 잘 가지고 있음을 나타낸다 ('-답다' attached to a noun indicates having a characteristic natural to oneself) The meaning is a bit more than just "be like", which would plainly be 같다 (그는 뱀 같아요). It's usually used to say "as X as a X should be". It includes some kind of judgement, expectation, ...


7

It's one of attributive endings (관형 어미) which transform a predicate (verbs, adjectives) into a modifier of the following noun. When attached to a sentence, they make the sentence something like a relative clause in English. There are four common attributive endings -ㄴ/-은, -ㄹ/-을, -던, and -는. They express different tense and aspect/modal. -ㄴ/-은 implies a ...


7

The verb '가지다' conjugates to '가지어-' which can be contracted to '가져'. '가지고' is a contracted form of '가지다' + '고' (and), connecting two verbs. They are two different ways to connect the two verbs '가지다' and '오다'. Both are commonly used, and I believe they are entirely interchangeable. '가지고 와' = '갖고 와' = '가져와' '가지고 가' = '갖고 가' = '가져가'


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