22

Using ㅍ for all /f/ sounds is the standard, and should be preferred. Using 후/호 for /f/ sounds comes from Japanese. Japanese doesn't have /f/, rather they have /ɸ/. So they use /ɸ/ for transliterating /f/ sounds from English. Korean doesn't have /ɸ/, so we use the closest sound to tranliterate from Japanese, which is 후/호(/hw/). So "family"(/fӕməli/) became ...


21

Some ethnicity-associated names Korea originated from the Goryeo dynasty, from about 10th-14th century. Joseon, as present in North Korea's name 조선민주주의인민공화국, originated in the later Joseon dynasty from about 15th-19th century. Han 한 originated as a native Korean word for "leader" and similar notions, which has been suggested to be related to khan (as in ...


12

It seems to have a modern origin. It showed up in a TV commercial of 고추장 in the 90s. In the commercial, the granny says even her daughter-in-law doesn't know the secret ingredient to her spicy rice cake dish. Such family secrets usually are passed on from mother-in-law to daughter-in-law, but the expression was to emphasize that it's even more secretive. ...


12

순우리말: I think this would be fine coming from a non-Korean. While being a Korean speaker or learner, you can consider it yours. Also the sense of 우리 in 순우리말 (without any spaces in it) has become attenuated. 순 한글: This may be problematic because 한글 is supposed to mean the Korean script. So a Sino-Korean word written in 한글 would be 순 한글. Text incorporating ...


12

It's not seagull :) It seems to be flow like this. '횡격막(diaphragm) -> spoken korean 가로막(horizontal block)' + '-이(er)' + '살(flesh)' = '가로막이살' -> '가ㄹㅗ매기살' - 'ㅗ' = '갈매기살' Source


11

Basically, 'Chosun' is the old name of 'Korea'. Used a lot in the past, it is rarely used anymore. 'North Korea' still uses the term 'Chosun', but it is rarely used in South Korea. That's why you have to understand the two words differently.


10

The character 切 has various meanings, not only 'to cut' or 'to disconnect'. According to Naver dictionary, 切 has following meanings, 끊다 베다 정성스럽다 <= 절 of 친절 used this meaning. 적절하다 중요하다(重要--) 절박하다(切迫--) 진맥하다 문지방(門地枋) 반절(反切: 한자의 음을 나타낼 때 다른 두 한자의 음을 반씩 따서 합치는 방법) 간절히(懇切-) a. 온통 (체) b. 모두 (체) When this character is used to express the meaning of a. and ...


10

Literally speaking, 양반 (兩班) just refers to the two branches of administration that existed in the 고려 and 조선 dynasties. (Civil administration, [문반, 文班] and Martial administration [무반, 武班]). I have seen the term 양반 used to even refer in general to a upper social class, gender irrespective. The term itself is not explicitly meant to refer to only men. But ...


9

The citation form of a verb is a particularly specific construct, tied to the requirements of a dictionary user. For inflecting languages such as Korean, it is very important that the user can deduce the citation form of the verb from any conjugated form found "in the wild". In the case of modern Korean, the citation form is a very simple but slightly ...


9

Most of the Korean Hanja readings are directly related to the Middle Chinese pronunciations/Kang Xi rimes. But this one is a classical example of a 와음 현상. 秒 should be "묘" by principle, but people misread the character, misrecognizing it as 抄 or 炒, which both have the reading "초", and they did it so much that it stuck and became the standard. Other ...


8

It's a word play on 물먹는 하마, a very famous brand of moisture absorber (see picture). [So the word play is that like this "water eating hippo" product absorbs water, the olympic stadiums in a post-olympic country absorb monetary resources.]


8

-가락 (suffix) denotes bar-like shape that is long and thin, such as fingers. It can also be used as a unit word that can count objects in that shape. 국수 한 가락 (a single thread of noodle) Naturally, 손가락 and 발가락 represent those bar-shaped parts of 손 and 발. Interestingly, it is often used to count songs. This 가락 is a homonym that means a melody. ...


7

'짜' is a pure Korean root word meaning "thing; person." Other words with '짜': 알짜 the best thing; the essence 공짜 a thing obtained without cost; free (of charge) 괴짜 eccentric person 퇴짜 rejection; brushing off source: Handbook of Korean Vocabulary, pp. 374-375


7

The name is written in Hanja as 李 which is pronounced as Lǐ in Chinese. Wikipedia has some information on why the spelling Lee is so common Though the official Revised Romanization spelling of this surname is I, South Korea's National Institute of the Korean Language noted in 2001 that one-letter surnames were quite rare in English and other ...


7

The English word "Korea" comes from the Korean word Koryeo (고려 / 高麗). Koryeo is a historical dynasty existing between 918 and 1392. As such, it does not make much sense to modern Koreans as a name for their country.


7

From Naver's online dictionary: 어원 : ←괜 [<空然] +하-+-지+아니-+하- Seems to be derived from 괜하지 않다 Also, from here: -찮다 is simply a contraction of -치 (cf. "-지 않다") + 않다 (않다 -> 아니하다 "to not be"). "괜" is a contracted form of the noun 관계 (關係) "relation, connection." Written out, the word's entire original form would be: "관계하지 아니하다," meaning "to ...


7

Originally, it's based on the word 뜨다 which has many meanings, but it seems the meaning that applies is an intransitive verb meaning "to come apart or be apart" (in Korean, the dictionary says "거리가 생기거나 사이가 멀다". From 뜨다, the causative is formed: 띄우다 ('뜨다'의 사동). "ㅢ" is used rather than "ㅣ" because the original word (뜨다) has an ㅡ in it - the ㅣ우다 is added to ...


7

Not sure if 언니 is from お兄 but the National Institute of Korean Language says that 언니 may be a contraction of 웃 (older) and 누이 (sister), which is pronounced as /운누이/.


6

Japanese verbs have the same form whether predicative or attributive. (The only exception is the copula, which is da or desu when used predicatively and na when used attributively.) However, this is not the case in the Korean language. Korean puts an attributive verb ending(관형사형 전성어미) to make a verb or an adjective behave as an attributive, and these endings ...


6

This shortening(지 않다 -> 잖다, 하지 않다 -> 찮다) is not general, and a lot of people don't even recognize that they're shortened forms. When shortening 귀하지 않다 to 귀찮다, it effectively altered the meaning(major usage) too. Almost nobody uses 귀찮다 to mean "not valuable", and 귀하지 않다 to mean "tiresome". Same with 괜찮다/괜하지 않다, 편찮다/편하지 않다, and 하찮다/하지 않다. Their usages and ...


6

I'd say "classical" hanja-eo (based on Middle Chinese eumhun readings) is quite easy to spot, although the accuracy is quite low. You've mentioned certain phonological and phonotactic features; there are a few more which I can go through: lack of 쌍 consonants restricted set of 받침: limited to those of Sino-Korean and corresponding to Middle Chinese's, i.e. ㄴ,...


6

As with many other Confucianism-influenced countries, the Korean society was under patriarchy, male dominance. The family structure was patrilineal as well. When a woman got married, it was said that she became a member of her husband’s family; it was she that entered the family from the outside. And children got their fathers’ surnames. Hence the “친(親)-” (“...


6

So, you wanted etymology, right? Well, every words you wrote is sino-Korean, which means it is composed with Chinese character. Let's start with 사원. 사원 is 社員 in Chinese character. 社 means 'to meet', and it is also 사 of 회사. 員 means 'number of people'(인원), and it can be used as meaning of member. (조직원 : gang member) Next is 주임. At Korean dictionary, it says ...


5

Maybe 짜 is pure korean word. But its meaning is pretty well explained by Leftium. In most case it mean a thing or person. But the Thing is there is a word 子[자] that exactly means thing or person as well. 연산자[演算子][operator]=연산[operating/calculating]+자[thing] (in math) 인자[因子][factor/a thing that draws another phenomenon]=인[cause]+자[thing] 공자[孔子][Confucius]=...


5

It's from dialect word "쩔다" which means "salt down". And It can be use both side of "The best" or "The worst" like "awesome". ex) 니 얼굴 쩐다. -> Your face looks awesome.(Bad or Good)


4

The etymology page of the National Institute of Korean Language's site explains that 마찬가지 is a shortened form of 마치 한가지. ‘마찬가지’라는 단어는 옛 문헌에서 발견되지 않는다. 사전으로서는 <조선어사전>(1938)에서 처음으로 확인된다. ‘마찬가지’는 ‘마치 한가지’라는 표현이 줄어든 단어이다. ‘마치 한가지’의 ‘마치’는 ‘흡사(恰似)’의 뜻이고 ‘한가지’는 “형태, 동작 따위가 서로 같은 것”을 뜻하므로 이것이 줄어든 ‘마찬가지’는 “흡사 서로 같은 것처럼 동일함”이라는 뜻이다. ‘매한가지’와 의미가 비슷하다. 중세국어에서 ‘마치’...


4

Suffix -발 here means effect or effectiveness. Other words with the suffix are as follow: 감기약을 먹었더니 약발이 돌아 졸려 온다. I'm getting drowsy because of the flu medicine that I took. 연예인들도 결국 화장발, 조명발이다. At the end, even celebs are nothing without makeup and lighting. 너는 참 운발이 좋구나. You are so lucky! When it attached to some meteorological phenomena, ...


4

According to Naver Korean dictionary, -발 has two meanings. (After some kind of nouns) A suffix that adds meaning 'power' or 'force' to a noun. (e.g. 끗발, 말발) (After some kind of nouns) A suffix that adds meaning 'effect' to a noun. (e.g. 약발, 화장발) 말발 means 'the power of speech'. In this case, the meaning 'power' is added by the suffix -발.


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