In the formal styles what i have noticed from TV shows, is that [least polite to most polite]:

  1. Haera-che: in modern times expresses more factual statements and also a level of distance plus non-deference. In historical dramas i notice it just expresses distance and non-deference [used by monarchs as in Lee Chan the Crown Prince in Kingdom]

  2. Hage-che: in modern times expresses a masculine and old person feel to it [as in Episoode 6 of Reaper; Lee Young-cheon, former Korean War Veteran] and addressing someone in a lower position to you [Episode 18 of Vincenzo; Kim Seok-woo the secretary of Presidential candidate talking to Vincenzo an attorney; Lee Gon in The King: Eternal Monarch]. In historical dramas its gender neutral and often addressing someone in a lower position [e.g. senior court ladies talking to junior court ladies - Under the Queen's Umbrella, Mr. Queen etc]

  3. Hao-che: in modern times only used as a dialectical ending [north koreans in Crash Landing on You] and shows deference like Haeyo-che ending but formal. In historical dramas it pretty much like Haeyo-che.

  4. Hasipsio-che: in modern times and historical dramas expressing deference to listener. In modern times more a "jock" feel to it due to army connotation [D.P.; Descendants of the Sun]

  5. Hasoseo-che: in modern times just used in religious services. in historical dramas i have mostly seen it in the imperative form [as in 이지 마시옵소서 used in The King's Affection]. In historical dramas the they used the humble affix C사옵/V옵 but rarely is the actual form of -나이다 used; but i have heard it Mr.Queen.

Am I wrong ?

  • 1
    No you are not wrong. 90% correct. Here is my comment. Haera is just ordering. Hage-not necessarily masculine. Any elder person can say Hage to a younger. Related to age not social position. Hasipsio doesn't have "jock" feel. Hasoseo is higly with reverence, but definiately old, not used style. Seen in old time drama (for 'Yangban' or in palace) or in the Bible.
    – Chan Kim
    Commented Jan 7, 2023 at 22:09


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