Previously I thought there is no structural difference between adjectives and verbs in Korean, since all Korean words which are translated as adjectives into English are actually verbs which express the quality of being described by a given English adjective, and are conjugated almost the same as action verbs. Almost.
However, I was told that the functional suffixes for those two kinds of verbs are not always the same. Upon further research, I got to know that the action verb
쓰다, when written as such, is just an infinitive, while its simplest present tense form is
쓴다. Likewise, the most informal way to tell "I read" is
읽다 is just an infinitive. But the infinitive and the plain present tense of an "adjectival" verb is the same, thus
작다 is both "to be small" and "(it) is small".
And when both kinds of verbs play the role of a relative clause (preceding the noun they qualify as an additional information to it), their endings, which give those relative clauses a kind of verbal tense, aren't exactly the same or do not mean the same thing.
읽는 여자 is "a girl who reads" and
읽은 여자 is "a girl who read (in the past)", but "a small girl" goes as
작은 여자 and "a girl who was small" translates as
What category does the verb
없다 fall into, then? On one hand, I found its relative clause present form as
없는 (which can sometimes be translated as "without"), but on the other hand I found sample phrases showing
없다 (rather than 없는다) as "there isn't...". This seems to be a contradiction, since the first ending applies to action verbs, and the second ending applies to descriptive verbs.
없다 can also be translated as "(to be) absent", it's not evident whether it is an action verb or a descriptive verb. So?