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How can I find equivalents to the following chart for Modern Korean?

Scilicet, the chart for Korean must SCHEMATICALLY map out each of Modern Korean's phonemes, and each phoneme must be escorted by a common Korean word featuring that phoneme. Vowels MUST be charted in a triangle or quadrilateral. It's useless simply to list out phonemes without order.

Scilicet, the chart for Korean must SCHEMATICALLY map out each of Modern Korean's phonemes, and each phoneme must be tailgated by a common Korean word featuring that phoneme. Vowels MUST be charted in a triangle or quadrilateral. It's useless simply to list out phonemes without order.

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These two pages stem from the 2013 10 edn. of Fromkin, Rodman's An Introduction to Language. My library doesn't have the 2018 11 edn. The meaning of "Pastedown" is pictorialized below.

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From https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%ED%95%9C%EA%B5%AD%EC%96%B4_%EC%9D%8C%EC%9A%B4%EB%A1%A0.


The phonology of the standard Korean

The 21 vowels

The Korean vowel diagram

The Korean vowel diagram

The 10 short vowels

  • as in 이 (“child”) [ɐ.i]
  • as in 디 (“where”) [ʌ.di]
  • as in 이 (“cucumber”) [.i]
  • as in 리 (“we”) [u.ɾi]
  • as in (“that” or “he”) [kɯ]
  • as in 마 (“forehead”) [i.ma]
  • as in (“the sun”) [h]
  • as in 누 (“silkworm”) [nu.]
  • as in (“iron”) [s⁽ʰ⁾ø]
  • as in (“top”) [y]

The short vowels (left) and their long versions (right)

  • as in (“horse”) [mɐl] & (“speech”) [mɐːl]
  • as in (“punishment”) [p⁽ʰ⁾ʌl] & (“bee”) [p⁽ʰ⁾ɘːl]
  • as in 리 (“barley”) [p⁽ʰ⁾.ɾi] & 수 (“reward”) [p⁽ʰ⁾.su]
  • as in (“eye”) [nun] & (“snow”) [nn]
  • as in 어 (“adult”) [ɘː.ɾɯn] & 식 (“food”) [ɯːm.ɕik̚]
  • as in 장 (“hunger”) [ɕi.dʑaŋ] & 장 (“market”) [ɕ.dʑaŋ]
  • as in 양 (“the sun”) [tʰɛ.jaŋ] & 도 (“attitude”) [tʰɛː.do]
  • as in 개 (“pillow”) [p⁽ʰ⁾e.ɡɛ] & 다 (“to cut”) [p⁽ʰ⁾.da]
  • as in 교 (“church”) [k⁽ʰ⁾ʲoː.ɦwe ~ k⁽ʰ⁾ʲoː.ɦø] & 투 (“outerwear”) [weː.tʰu ~ øː.tʰu]
  • as in 로 [y.ɾo ~ ɥi.ɾo] & 리 (“oat”) [k.ɾi ~ kɥiː.ɾi]

Short vowels with the semivowels [j] and [w] (another 10 vowels)

  • ㅏ [ɐ] → [jɐ] & [wɐ]
  • ㅓ [ʌ] → [jʌ] & [wʌ]
  • ㅗ [o̞] → [jo̞]
  • ㅜ [u] → [ju]
  • ㅐ [e̞] → [je̞] & [we̞]
  • ㅔ [e̞] → [je̞] & [we̞]

Note: some studies say that they’re rising diphthongs, rather than ones with semivowels.

The diphthong ㅢ (another 1 vowel)

  • [ɰi]

Notes

  • Technically, “ㅐ” is close to [ɛ], while “ㅔ” is more of [e]. But nowadays “ㅐ” and “ㅔ” may sound the same: somewhere between [ɛ] and [e].
  • The longer vowels are not a thing anymore. Now, only elderly speakers differentiate the short and the long. Younger speakers simply just stick to the short ones.

The 19 consonants

19 initial consonants (all of them can be initial)

Korean initial consonants

Note: “ㅇ” at the initial position has no sound! It’s not [ŋ].

7 final consonants (and 7 of them can be final)

Korean final consonants

Note: Korean’s 평음/격음/경음 distinction.

The Korean language doesn’t make the voiced/voiceless distinction. It has the 평음平音/격음激音/경음硬音 distinction, distinguished by tenseness.

  • “평음”: they are not or weakly aspirated; “ㅂ,” “ㄷ,” “ㅈ,” and “ㄱ” between voiced sounds, such as nasal consonants, liquid consonants, and vowels, are voiced; otherwise (for the “ㅅ” sound, or “ㅂ,” “ㄷ,” “ㅈ,” and “ㄱ” at the beginning of words), they are voiceless.
  • “격음” is voiceless aspirated consonants.
  • “경음” is tenuis consonants, that are, voiceless, unaspirated and unglottalized.

This might help too (it has word examples for the consonants): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_phonology.

Kudos to you studying this phonologically complicated language. Even though making those Korean sounds is one of the easiest things for me to do, still, studying its phonology overwhelms me.


Edit: the /ㅓ/ sound is a bit different than how it’s described here.

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    It's worth mentioning that the short-long vowel distinction is obsolete for all practical purposes - I don't think I've ever seen anyone actually making the distinction.
    – jick
    Aug 18 at 16:47
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    @jick Yeah, that’s right. I addressed it in the answer: “The longer vowels are not a thing anymore. Now, only elderly speakers differentiate the short and the long. Younger speakers simply just stick to the short ones.” Aug 19 at 0:39
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    @jick it's more alive than you think. All Gyeongsang dialect speakers distinguish them since the long vowels are marked with a distinct tone as well. You can also see Seoul speakers distinguish them. For example, this news anchor youtube.com/watch?v=Z0o2P59U5VQ . You can clearly hear the distinction in 묻:습니다, 반:납, 과:태료, etc.
    – MujjinGun
    Aug 30 at 5:53

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