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Hi I have a question about: 갇, 갓, 갔, 같 Why do these all romanize to gat, and what is the sound change between them (how can I decipher one from the other)?

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Because the pronunciation is actually the same.

In order to distinguish, it must be distinguished in practical use.

'같'다 = same

'갇'히다 = be shut up (in), be locked (up/away), be confined

'갓' 태어난 = Newborn baby // in case 갓 is just.

'갔'다 = go

This is an example I wrote down as I thought, so it could mean more.

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고대 한국어에서는 모두 다른 발음이었다고 알고 있습니다 (정확하진 않아요) 그러나 현대에 이르러서는 거의 같은 발음입니다. 문법으로 구별하면 됩니다

in ancient times they sound different. but nowadays they sound same. you can deciphe it with grammar

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