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So I am listening to TTMIK’s Iyagi #14 about Taxis where 현우 is talking with 경은 about how taxi drivers in the provinces often use 반말 in contrast to their more polite Seoul counterparts:

기분이 나쁘지 않은 게, 처음에는 기분이 나쁠 수 있었는데, 갈 때마다 그러는 거예요, 지방에 갈 때마다 경주도 그랬고, 광주도 그랬고 또 광주는 그 광주 사투리가 있잖아요. “어디 가는가?” 그렇게 말하는 그 ‘어디 가?’도 아니고 ‘가는가?’ 이렇게 존댓말하고 반말 사이에 그런 표현이 있어서 전혀 이상하지 않은 거예요

Normally when I post a question I try to show some attempt at understanding, but the confusing use of quotes with 그렇게 and 이렇게 (what is the difference here?), 말하는 modyfying a quote as if it were a noun, as well as 도 아니고 has me stumped. Would someone be able to translate and maybe break it down for me, please?

Note: (I have used the transcription only available on TTMIK's website. There were some slight discrepancies (e.g. the first 그렇게 was actually 이렇게 in audio) which I presume were corrections rather than transcription errors)

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I think, in this context, 그렇게 and 이렇게 doesn't make much difference.

For example, let's consider this fragment (changed the last word to make it easier to explain):

"어디 가는가?" 그렇게 말하는 [것] = speaking like "어디 가는가?"

Here, "어디 가는가?" is the quotation. And then the following "그렇게 말하는" describes the sentence just quoted: "speaking like (...)"

When you think about it, English has a pretty similar expression:

And then he was like, "where are you going?"

If you use 이렇게, it's referring to something closer. However, since you're just quoting someone else saying it, I think both are applicable: to be pedantic, 이렇게 may refer to the sentence you just uttered (which was a quotation), and 그렇게 may refer to the original sentence (which was uttered a while ago by someone else). But it seems like splitting hairs to me.

Back to the original phrase, note that it's a highly conversational sentence - multiple similar phrases are appearing consecutively without a clear linking structure. So,

“어디 가는가?” 그렇게 말하는 = speaking like "어디 가는가?"

그 ‘어디 가?’도 아니고 ‘가는가?’ 이렇게 = like, "가는가?", instead of "어디 가?"

("A도 아니고 B" is normally "B, not even A" but here it may be closer to simply "B, not A".)

존댓말하고 반말 사이에 그런 표현이 있어서 = there are these expressions between polite and non-polite speech, so

전혀 이상하지 않은 거예요 = it's not awkward at all.

So, connecting together, it's something like:

So, there are expressions like "어디 가는가?" --- see, it's not even "어디 가?", but "가는가?" --- so they have expressions like this somewhere between 존대말 and 반말, which sound perfectly natural.

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