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Is the pronunciation of 시 same as "x" as in Mandarin ? It's sound similar to me, but I'm not sure if they are exactly the same. Do they have the same tongue position and mouth shape, having the same sound ?

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Almost.

"x" in Mandarin refers to Mandarin Pinyin, which points to the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative. In IPA, a comparison can be given as follows:

  • Mandarin 「細」 (Pinyin: ), Toneless IPA: /ɕi/ (audio sample)
  • Korean (Seoul) 「시」, IPA: /ɕʰi/ (audio sample)

The difference between the two is that in Korean, at least in the Seoul standard, 「시」 is supposed to be pronounced with an aspiration, although I confess I can't really hear the difference.

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