As a beginner in Korean but with a knowledge of basic Japanese grammar, so far I tried to draw analogies between the grammars of both languages. Maybe it's not the right approach, but even so, I would like to clarify a specific grammatical construction, comparing the examples I saw for both languages meaning "Both X and Y".

More exactly: "Both cafés and restaurants are many".

In Japanese, it would go as follows: Kissaten-mo resutoran-mo ooi where mo is an inclusive particle meaning approximately "also" / "as well", but in this sentence making up for a conjunction meaning "as much X as Y". The phrase is finished by an adjective meaning "numerous", which does not require a declarative particle in this example.

The Korean translation I've found is as follows: 다방도 많고 식당도 많(습니)다. I'm sure that the particle "" plays the same role as Japanese mo. But the descriptive verb "(...)" is repeated for each noun, being the earlier instance of the verb followed by the copulative particle (if I got the terminology right) "" meaning "and", and the latter instance followed by the declarative particle "", mandatory to end an affirmative sentence.

Perhaps I'd better just forget about Japanese at this point, right? In Japanese, the descriptive word is only needed once, since the inclusive particle (which could be attached to as many nouns in sequence as we felt like) connects every noun to their common description. In Japanese, "As much X as Y are Z" is rendered like "As much X, as much Y, (...) is Z".

Questions summed:

  1. In Korean, "As much X as Y are Z" is literally told "As much X is Z and as much Y is Z"?

  2. I've found another sentence, as follows: 가개와 백화점도 있(습니)다 meaning "There are also shops and malls". If I'm not wrong, "" is the equivalent for "and" when connecting two nouns directly. Perhaps I could also say 다방와 식당도 많다 so that I would only need the verb once, but this variant would express a slightly different nuance, meaning literally "Moreover, cafés and restaurants are many" rather than "There's plenty of cafés as much as of restaurants"?

1 Answer 1


You can say:

카페도 많고 식당도 많습니다.

카페와 식당이 많습니다. (These two are almost equivalent, I personally can't tell any difference.)

카페도 식당도 많습니다. (This also makes sense, but my personal impression is that this form sounds more natural when used with negative adjectives. For example: 카페도 식당도 없습니다. You can also add 다, like 돈도 명예도 사랑도 다 싫다.)

Something not relevant but I want to point out:

  1. 다방 is old-fashioned word, we usually just say 카페 for café.
  2. Just like 을/를 and 이/가, we have 와/과. For 다방 you should use 다방과, not 다방와.
  3. Indeed, Japanese and Korean have many similarities, but the details are slightly different, so while your Japanese knowledge can be helpful, you should not try to directly construct a Korean sentence from Japanese sentence by translating it word by word. There are also some expressions which are common in Japanese but not in Korean, and vice versa, despite the cultural similarity. For example, in Japanese, みんな (everyone) is commonly used to call a group of people, but 모두 is rarely used in that way.
  • So the third example is possible indeed. Now that you mention, perhaps the direct sequence of "mo" particles in Japanese would rather be used with a negation, whereas for a positive statement they would use another kind of concatenation, like "Kissaten mo ooku, resutoran mo ooi", where "ooku" is the adjective with the enchaining ending. Thanks for reminding me of 과. This one is tricky, since it starts with a consonant, but is used after a consonant! Whereas 는 and 를 are used after vowels. If you know what I mean.
    – swrutra
    Jan 6, 2021 at 20:15
  • Also note in addition to 와/과, (이)랑 is used more often in informal situations, and 하고 may be used more formally.
    – kaylimekay
    Jan 7, 2021 at 5:01

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