This sentence with a relative clause is intriguing me:
비행기를 보는 사람이 많습니다. [pihaenggi-reul po-neun saram-i manh-seumni-da]
I know that this means "There are many people who are looking at the airplane". In this sentence, 는 qualifies the preceding sequence "are looking at the plane" as the relative clause. Presumably, 이 is the verb "to be". But why is there no particle 가 before the verb and after 사람?
I saw a second sentence, which is as follows:
착륙하는 비행기가 많습니카? [ch'angnyuk'ha-neun pihaenggi-ga manh-seumni-kka]
"Are there many airplanes (which are) landing?". Here, the syntactic function of the words is clear-cut. 는 standing for the relative clause, 가 standing for the subject, with the verb "to be" omitted before the adjective 많 ("many").
So, in the first sentence, the subject particle 가 is omitted and the noun 사람 is directly followed by the verb 이. While in the second sentence, the subject particle follows the noun 비행기 and the verb is omitted.
I have no doubts about the second construction, since the verb "to be" can be omitted before an adjective. But why is the subject particle omitted in the first sentence?