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In my textbook, both 가족상황 and 혼인관계 are translated as "marital status".
Now, I'm not sure how to use them. 혼인관계 is listed under personal information, so I guess it is used in a context of a certificate or an ID (so, in a written form?).

When would you use 가족상황? Could you please give me an example?

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가족상황 is family relation. If you were to directly translate each word, it would be 가족(family)+상황(situation). However, it basically refers to the family relation. To add more, family is 가족 and relation is 관계.

we do not quite use the word 가족상황 in our daily life, but I would assume that the textbook was referring to the family relations instead.

For example, there's 가족 관계 증명서 which is an official document that the government issue to prove your family registry. 가족 관계 증명서 is officially translated as Family Relations Certificate in English. This document contains information about your direct families such as Father, Mother, Spouse, and Child. So, 가족 관계 refers to your relation to the direct families.

혼인 관계 is marital status. Again, there's 혼인 관계 증명서 which is an official document that the government issue to prove your marital status. 혼인 관계 증명서 is officially translated as Marriage Relation Certificate. This document contains information about yourself and your spouses only. Your kids or any other family members would not be addressed here. So 혼인 관계 refers to your marriage relation.

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가족상황 basically asking about family "situation" -- single parent, divorced, living with grandparent(s) or any relatives as guardians, with or without having parents (not in contact or they passed), or if one is orphan.

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