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In the resources I've used learning Korean (Pimsleur), "아세요" is used frequently, but Google translate uses the latter (아십니까). What are the differences between these words, and which is used more frequently in day-to-day speech?

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    The only difference is that "아십니까" is more formal than "아세요". They are interchangeable in everyday conversations, though 아세요 may sound slightly more friendly. There are some rare, very formal situations when one would avoid using 아세요, but given that you are not Korean, you are not likely to face such situations ever, so don't worry.
    – Absol
    Sep 5 '20 at 16:58
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    I guess my answer in this link could help you understand the difference between 아세요 and 아십니까. korean.stackexchange.com/a/5984/177 -ㅂ니까 is both polite and formal postfix while -요 is polite but not so formal.
    – jungyh0218
    Sep 10 '20 at 1:19
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"아세요" is more natural in daily conversations. "아십니까" is used in news or more formal interviews.

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