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I didn't quite understand what the difference between Patchim swallowing & consonant shift is.

Please explain with simple English and examples
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    please show an example of what you don't understand. What do you mean by patchim swallowing? – user17915 Jun 21 at 15:41
  • I have added the image explanation – Pallavi Srivastava Jun 22 at 16:04
  • When you pronounce a Korean character that has a consonant at the bottom (This consonant is called the final consonant or 받침 (batchim)), you should never release a burst of breath at the end. There are various cases regarding consonant shifts (Some are unpredictable), so you should consult a dictionary when you see a new word. A simple and predictable one occurs when you pronounce a character that has 받침 and its next character starts with the consonant ㅇ, which is like "zero" or "no consonant" (Some will say the next syllable starts with a vowel, instead). For example, 복어 is pronounced as 보거. – Klmo Jun 22 at 19:24
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The quoted explanation for "Patchim swallowing" is commonly called unreleased stops. You can read the wikipedia article or search for the term for more info.

I'm not exactly sure what you mean by "consonant shift", but note that there are many places where the written letter doesn't match the sound: for example, 직렬 (serial connection) sounds 징녈, because in Korean ㄱ+ㄹ always becomes ㅇ+ㄴ.

I think unreleased stops are not really a consonant shift because, in the Korean sound system, these sounds are not being transformed into a different sound: an unreleased ㄱ is still ㄱ, and a native Korean speaker will perceive the initial and final sound of 기억 is the same sound, even though the final one is unreleased and the initial one is, obviously, released.

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