I am wondering whether 중국어을 전공한 학생 or 중국을 전공하는 학생 would be more correct?
Is -는 used in verbs, so 중국을 전공하는 학생 would be right?
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You mean 'a student who majors in Chinese'? -> 중국어를 전공한 학생 / 중국어를 전공하는 학생. Both are okay. -는 is an ending of a word that implies that an event or action is happening in the present.
So 중국어를 전공하는 학생 emphasizes more on studying Chinese right now as a major, while 중국어를 전공한 학생 suggests that the student completes the process to get the degree for Chinese as his major.