1

敎자는 爻(효 효)자와 子(아들 자)자, 攵(칠 복)자가 결합한 모습이다.

What is the reason to use 결합한 instead of 결합하는 in this case? The sentence is like a definition so I thought that 결합하는 would be fit with that general thing like that but it's wrong.

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Let's look at the definition of -는 and -ㄴ(boldface added):

-는: 앞말이 관형어 구실을 하게 하고 이야기하는 시점에서 볼 때 사건이나 행위가 현재 일어남을 나타내는 어미.

-ㄴ: 앞말이 관형어 구실을 하게 하고 사건이나 행위가 과거 또는 말하는 이가 상정한 기준 시점보다 과거에 일어남을 나타내는 어미.

As you see, 敎 is already in its combined form of 爻, 子 and 攵; you don't actively combine them the very moment you use this character. So it would be more appropriate to use -ㄴ here.

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