Why is it weird with 도록 in this case?
도록: (목적) so that, in order that, that, (so as) to, in order to
이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 하루에 한 번 물을 줘야 한다.
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이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 하루에 한 번 이 꽃에 물을 줘야 한다.
Because the subject of this sentence is "you" in English, 이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 (= 이 꽃을 잘 키우게) basically means "To help (or make) yourself grow this flower well." In the Korean language, "your helping or making yourself do something" does not make sense. If you wish to say "For this flower to grow up well," you need to correct this part as 이 꽃이 잘 자라도록, 이 꽃이 잘 성장하도록, or 이 꽃이 잘 크도록.
키우다 is a causative verb; adding unnecessary causativeness using "-도록" is not advisable. I could even say that your sentence has a "double causative" error (I am not sure whether it is the correct term). Oh, then "Are sentences like
우리가 이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 하겠습니다.
incorrect?", you might ask. Yes, they are incorrect. Some people are quite insensitive to errors regarding causative (and passive) expressions. The correct sentence is
우리가 이 꽃을 잘 키우겠습니다.
When A says to B "도록", A is talking about making some other C to do that. Thus, it can be considered somewhat conservative expression. Here are other similar sentences.
이 꽃을 잘 키우자면 하루에 한 번 물을 줘야 한다.
, this means "You should water once a day to grow up this flower perfectly."
이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 하루에 한 번 물을 줘야 한다.
, this means "This flower should be watered for growing up perfectly."
~도록 can be attached to some adjectives or verbs to have the meaning of "so that" or "in order to".
"키우도록" in the quated sentence "이 꽃을 잘 키우도록 하루에 한 번 물을 줘야 한다." is "키우다" + "~도록"
But the problem here is the verb "키우다" "키우다" is 사동사 (使動詞, the causative verb) of "크다" 크 + '우'(a suffix to make a verb a causative verb) + 다 = 키우다
"키우다" means "make it bigger, stronger" and "크다" means "grow up". For example for "키우다", 나무를 키우다 to make a tree bigger 힘을 키우다 to make energy stronger for "크다", 1년 사이에 키가 크다 to become taller for an year 날씨가 건조하면 나무가 크지 못한다 If it is dry, a tree cannot grow up.
Anyway "키우다" is the causative verb so it is awkward to be attached with "~도록". "~도록" sounds natural if it is combined with main verbs. For example, 지하철를 놓치지 않도록 뛰었어요. I ran so that I would not miss the train. 나무가 잘 자라도록 거름을 주었다. I fertilized so that the tree grows up.
So to correct the sentence above, you need to change the postpositional word "~을" to "~이". -> 이 꽃"이" 잘 "크도록" 하루에 한 번 물을 줘야 한다" Because the main verb "크다" needs a postpositional word to make a word a subject like "~이" before it, not a postpositional word to make a word an object like "~을".
I don't know why you think the sentence looks strange, but here's the use of 도록 compared to 게:
So depending on the thing you want to focus, this sentence may make sense or look strange.
Example: If your goal is only to make the flower grow up, and you don't care about what the op will act to achieve the goal, then using 도록 may look strange. But if you aim at commanding op to take action (i.e. water once a day) in order for the flower to grow up, then your sentence is actually making sense.