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In the following sentence:

지하철에서 내리자마자 물건을 놓고 내렸는 것을 알았면 내린 시간과 내린 곳의 정확한 위치를 확인하고서 바로 역무실에 가서 이야기하면 됩니다.

버스나 택시에 물건을 놓고 내렸을 때도 7일 이후에는 경찰 유실물 센터로 보내진는 사실을 기억하시면 좋겠습니다.

(연세한국어 듣기와 읽기 3-1 p. 59)

In these sentences, it uses a redundant 다 added to the original word. But I'm not sure why they are used or even required.

If you replace the sentence with 내렸는 것을, 알았면, and 보내진는 사실, it still makes sense. I feel like the meaning is same, at least based on the transcriptions the book include.

So why are they used in the first place?

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    내렸는, 알았면, and 보내진는 do not make sense at all. Please look up -다는, -다면, -는 , and -면 in a dictionary.
    – Klmo
    Nov 24 '19 at 17:04
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Others might disagree with my statement and I do not represent every Korean, but I must say it is easy and time-saving to use 다 speaking Korean.

물건을 놓고 내렸다.

This is a simple sentence. When you convert it into an adnominal clause, which way would be easy? Wouldn't it be A?

A. Attach -는 to 다 (물건을 놓고 내렸다는)

B. Remove -었다 and use -ㄴ (물건을 놓고 내린)

In addition, you can use -다는 in place of -다고 하는. There are many shortened forms (-다는, -라는, -자는, -냐는, ...) used for indirect quotations. People prefer them to the original forms (-다고 하는, -라고 하는, -자고 하는, -냐고 하는, ...).

So, using -다는 can be regarded as a style unless the following noun is incompatible with -다는. Reading my previous answer and referring to this book or this blog post, you will know that some nouns are used with -다는 not with -는; others with -는 not with -다는; the others including "사실" with both. (Search keywords are 긴 관형절 and 짧은 관형절.)

Anyway, the first sentence can also be written as the following:

지하철에서 내리자마자 물건을 놓고 내 것을 알았다면 내린 시간과 내린 곳의 정확한 위치를 확인하고서 바로 역무실에 가서 이야기하면 됩니다.

지하철에서 내리자마자 물건을 놓고 내 것을 알았면 내린 시간과 내린 곳의 정확한 위치를 확인하고서 바로 역무실에 가서 이야기하면 됩니다.

지하철에서 물건을 놓고 내다면 내린 시간과 내린 곳의 정확한 위치를 확인하고서 바로 역무실에 가서 이야기하면 됩니다. (What is redundant is 것, so I rewrote part of the sentence.)

지하철에서 물건을 놓고 내렸으면 내린 시간과 내린 곳의 정확한 위치를 확인하고서 바로 역무실에 가서 이야기하면 됩니다.

것 in 내렸다는 것 means 사실, so both 내린 것 and 내렸다는 것 (not 내렸는 것) are correct.

-으면 (not -면) can be used instead of -다면; however, they are not interchangeable in every sentence. -으면 is used more broadly than -다면, which means that using -다면 clarifies what you are saying: The preceding words refer to a hypothetical condition.

The second sentence is not written well because it omits a subject of a clause: what is sent. I would say:

버스나 택시에 물건을 놓고 내렸을 때도 일주일 동안 주인이 찾아가지 않은 물건은 경찰 유실물 센터로 보내진다는 사실을 기억하시면 좋겠습니다.

This is an exception because the following sounds awkward to me:

버스나 택시에 물건을 놓고 내렸을 때도 일주일 동안 주인이 찾아가지 않은 물건은 경찰 유실물 센터로 보내지는 사실을 기억하시면 좋겠습니다.

Even though two adnominal clauses can be used with 사실, 보내진다는 사실 is highly preferred (based on Google search results). For this reason, you should also consider collocations.

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  • Thanks and regarding the comment sorry for that, I was really confused with the different ways of writing a past form (았/었 vs ㄴ). How can I know if one sentence is awkward or not then (like on the last sentence)?
    – Blaszard
    Nov 24 '19 at 20:33
  • @Blaszard Asking questions to a Korean friend who cares much about grammar is the best way, but Googling phrases with quotation marks ("") (for example, "보내진다는 사실" and "보내지는 사실") will give you hints on collocations. Using a corpus could also help, but it does not have all what people say.
    – Klmo
    Nov 24 '19 at 20:44
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Removing the 다 will change the meaning of the sentence. 다는 and 다면 have different meanings which are both well defined in the National Institute of Korean Language's Dictionary.

I would highly recommend familiarizing yourself with indirect quotations in Korean language, a topic not directly related to your question. For example, the -는다고 ending.

다는

"An expression used to quote someone, while modifying the following noun."

바쁘다는 사람이 일은 안 하고 어디 갔어요?

Where did the person who said they were busy but doesn't work?


모두가 쉽다는 문제를 아직 못 풀고 있어요?

Everyone still can not solve the problem which was said to be easy?

다면 has two entries in the direction

다면

"A connective ending used when assuming a certain fact or situation."

내가 좀 더 예뻤다면 인기가 많았을 텐데

If I was just a little prettier, I guess I would be more popular.

다면

"An expression used to assume that someone will express his/her thought or will, which becomes the condition for the following statement."

내가 말을 할 수 있는 동물이 있다면 너는 내 말을 믿을 수 있니?

Would you believe me if I had an animal that could speak?

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