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As I always make mistake with ㅔ and ㅐ, I always wondered why we use 겠 and not 갰, like in 알겠습니다.

Also, if there is any heuristic for ㅔ and ㅐ, please let me know.

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    I don't think an etymology is known, but "갰" doesn't appear in Standard Korean in any occasion. – Ignatius Oct 23 '19 at 0:51
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    Note that ㅔ and ㅐ are also different sounds in strictly standard Korean, and they are still quite different outside the Seoul / Gyeonggi-do areas. – Michaelyus Oct 23 '19 at 10:12
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    갰 is used in 갰다, past tense for 개다 - to fold. – Jihyung Kang Oct 23 '19 at 12:38
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    And though ㅔ and ㅐ should sound differently, even native Koreans can't tell differences between these two in everyday conversations. (They do know how to pronounce them differently, they just don't because it's a bit tedious) They are strictly differentiated in written languages, though; 네 means "your", and 내 means "my". – Jihyung Kang Oct 23 '19 at 12:43
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    It has been said that -겠- came from the abbreviation for -게 ᄒᆞ엿- (reference). – Klmo Oct 28 '19 at 11:10
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'겠' came from '게 하여 있'. So the original form of '하겠다' is '하게 하여 있다'. Of course, the latter form is not actually used in modern Korean neither in written nor in spoken form.

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