I've been trying to make sense out of some Korean names for Judo techniques with a friend. Our main source is a Wikipedia page: https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/유도 along with https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_judo_techniques.

We are finding that there are a lot of words that seem to mean the same thing, along with other words from other arts, and we are wondering what differences or nuances there are to them. Are they interchangeable?

The first is a set of words that all seem to mean "outside". There's 바깥, 외, 발, and 밭. Eg: 바깥다리차기 (outer leg kick), 외수도 (outside knife hand), and 밭다리후리기 (outside leg reap). The second is a set of words that all seem to mean "inside". There's 안, and 내. Eg: 안다리차기 (inner leg kick), and 내수도 (inside knife hand).

Any clarification you may have to offer would be appreciated!

  • 내수도, 외수도 are not a terminology for 유도 in the link. And 바깥, 밭 are same (One is a shorter form) – HK Lee Oct 29 at 5:49
  • Correct, they are not in 유도 terminology. 바깥다리차기 and 안다리차기 are not either. They are strikes found in other martial arts. I did not see a use of 내 or 외 in the link, but those examples from other martial arts immediately came to mind. Sorry for the confusion. – user2912891 Oct 30 at 12:43

So Korean sort of has two sets of vocabulary words: "Korean Korean" words (e.g. 나가다, 들어가다) as well as "Chinese Korean" words (e.g. 안전, 봉변).

It's a lot like how in Japanese, when you learn Kanji you have to learn both the "Japanese" reading of the symbol as well as the "Chinese" reading of the symbol. Just like with Japanese, in Korean you use the "Korean Korean" words (e.g. 나라) as standalone vocabulary words and you combine the "Chinese Korean" words (e.g. 국), which are often just a single syllable each, into compound words.

Basically, the smaller words like 외 tend to be from the "Chinese Korean" set of vocabulary and words like 바깥 tend to be from the "Korean Korean" set of vocabulary. For everyday conversation, they're practically interchangeable if you're just using the words by themselves... but if you were to use "outside" as part of a compound word (e.g. 외국, 망외)you would use the "Chinese Korean" version for that whereas the "Korean Korean" 바깥 would be more of a standalone thing (i.e. you wouldn't say 바깥나라).

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