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Korean's one of te hardest spelling is 안 and 않. So I want to know the rules in 안 and 않. Ex) 나는 안 할거야. Ex) 그는 그 일을 하지 않았다.

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않다 is used as verbs and secondary verbs and 안 is used as adverb,so they are differently used. 않다 is short of 아니하다 and 안 is short of 아니(that does not mean 아니하다`s 아니 it has slight differnce.) ex)아무것도 먹지 않는다, 안 먹는다.

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안 + verb = not + verb

He does not eat apple 그는 사과를 안 먹는다.

아니 한다 not do => 않다=않아요=않는다, not did => 않았다.

He does not clean the room 방을 청소하지 않는다.

He did not eat 먹지 않았다.

아니다 not is => 않다=않아요, not was => 않았다.

I do not want to be tall 나는 키 크고 싶지 않다.

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Re- of the original post by 김성훈 at here

They differ in usage; 않다 functions as either a verb or a secondary verb while 안 functions as an adverb. 않다 is abbreviate from 아니하다 while 안 is from 아니; therefore, 않다 and 안 can be used in place of 아니하다 and 아니, respectively, in a sentence to make it shorter.

Replacing 아니하다 with 않다
아무 말도 아니하다. => 아무 말도 않다 : ~ not say anything.
먹지 아니하다 => 먹지 않다 : ~ not eat ~.

Replacing 아니 with 안:
아니 먹다 => 먹다 : ~ not eat ~.
소리가 아니 들리다 => 소리가 들리다 ~ can not hear the sound.

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