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빈칸에 들어갈 가장 알맞은 말을 고르세요.

Is 들어갈 just the future tense of 들어가다 in this sentence?

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It's a future adnominal form of 들어가다 - a form that makes the verb describe the state of a noun in the future. Another way to think of an 'adnominal' is a bit like an adjective.

The noun being described here is '말' , though here there is another adjectival phrase - 가장 알맞은 - preceding the noun too.

A natural way of making a close translation in English could be 'Choose the best-fitting word to go in the blank'. You can see that the phrase there, in English, is also referring to a future action of the verb.

https://123learnkorean.wordpress.com/2009/07/04/ㄴ은-는-ㄹ을-adnominal-suffixes-korean-grammar/ contains some more information about adnominals.

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