I hear 우 instead of 으 and am told I pronounce them the same. (I'm a French native)
This is a question from the definition stage.
How are 으 and 우 pronounced?
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is the standard /u/, as in boot or moon in English. For a French example, Wikipedia tells me it's like où. It is called the close back rounded(protruded) vowel, meaning that your mouth is relatively "closed" (as opposed to "open" in "ah" /a/ 아), the tongue is posited at the back of your teeth (as opposed to "front" over the teeth or touching the lips in /a/), and has the lips forced to a "round" shape (as opposed to hardly any effort at shaping your lips in /a/).
is the harder one, as doesn't appear in as many languages as /u/. Its IPA is /ɯ/, and is called the close back unrounded vowel, which is pretty much like /u/, except it is unrounded rather than rounded (and protruded).
There are two approaches I use to teach others how to pronounce it:
Although it does help, there are still many people who cannot do it using these methods, and which one is the better one also differs from person to person.
Also, this is only a way I use to guide people in finding the right sound. People should be able to discover a more natural way to pronounce it over time, once they have a basic grasp on how to make that sound (albeit unnaturally).
Vowels do vary somewhat, depending on what other sounds are adjacent to them, what pitch the speaker in speaking in, the speaker's mood, emphasis on the word, etc, so these samples are for reference, while listening to more generic Korean speech is the better way to learn to pronounce it naturally.
Just to add to the other replies for your specific case:
You might be confused because the typical transliteration of hangul has 으 as 'eu' and 우 as 'u', but these should not be read as the equivalent French sounds.
으 is pronounced closer (not identical) to the French 'u' as in unique and
우 is pronounced like the French 'ou' as in mouler.
우 pronounced as oo (as in yahoo)
으 is pronounced as somewhat similar to uh (as in the expression of disgust)
Here is a video where we can hear the pronunciation of 우:
Here Is the part oif the same video that has the pronunciation of 으