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So I'm still really confused on the difference between them and how to use them in sentence. When should I use 이 or 이거 in a sentence or one instead of the other? How is one a pronoun and one a modifier? I'm sorry if these all seem like really basic questions but even though I'm a native English speaker, I've never been able to understand or memorize English grammar. If someone can explain this in depth but also simply then that would be great!

Edit: Would I use 이 to say "this (noun)" and then say something about the noun like "this book (이 책) is red?" Or would I use 이거 in this instance?

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    이거 is the contraction of 이 것 (this thing). The 이 in "this book" (이 책) cannot be replaced by 이거 (이거 책 (X) ). – user17915 Apr 10 '18 at 0:32
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이것 is used when you're saying this thing, whereas is used before the actual thing + noun.

Example:

  • 이 사과는 맛있어 -> this apple is delicious

  • 이것은 사과입니다 -> this thing, is an apple.

note that:

이것은 can contract to 이건, 이것이 to 이게, 이것을 to 이걸, and 이것으로 to 이걸로.

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    Oh that makes so much more sense. Thank you for also putting it simply too! – Lottee Apr 11 '18 at 1:58
  • This is minor, but note that 이 것 (‘this thing’) should be pronoun 이것 (‘this thing’), because it is a single compound word and therefore more preferred. (I'm sorry for being nitpicky.) – Константин Ван Apr 12 '18 at 10:41
  • @Lottee glad it helped. If you feel your question has been answered by any of the answers, please choose the correct answer :) – JacobJuul Jun 1 '18 at 11:50
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이 : 1) 관형사 decoration for noun :

이 옷이 좋다. This clothes is better.

이 말은 듣기좋다. This word is heard sweetly.

이 공원에서 쉬자. Let's have a break time at this park.

2) 지시 대명사 demonstrative pronoun :

이는 누전이 원인이다. This accident is originated from a leak of electricity.

이는 우리가 계승해야 한다. This must be succeeded by us.

이거 = 이것 = This : We prefer 이거 in conversation. That is a difference between 이거 and 이것.

이거 너 가져. Take this.

이건 뭐니? What is this ?

아니, 이게 누구야? Wow, who is this ?

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and 이거 can both be translated to this. However there are some differences.

  1. 이, 그, 저
  2. 이거, 그거, 저거
  3. 이것, 그것, 저것
  4. 이것저것

Group 1 are called 관형사. They are used to modify nouns.

이 가방.

그 책.

Group 2 are shortened terms of Group 3. Group 3 are this one, etc. Group 4 is like whatnot.

나는 시장에 갔다.

나는 이것저것을 가방에 넣었다.

"이 사과는 싸네요! 이거(이 것) 주세요."

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    "이 and 이거 can both be translated to this" - probably because 'this' can itself be short for 'this one' in English? "I'll take this", etc. – topo Reinstate Monica Apr 10 '18 at 8:30
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    @topomorto Exactly. I think so – KYHSGeekCode-N Apr 10 '18 at 9:23
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이 is used when trying to portray a possible comparison like:

이 사과는 맛있어 -> this apple is delicious

Meaning to say, this apple is delicious (while the possibility of comparing it with other apples)

While 이거 is used when trying to be show specificity of the noun.

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