A. 저는 여기가 처음이에요.
B. 저는 이전에 여기 온 적있어요.
- 여기 has a subject marker in the first sentence. Why is 여기 the subject? Shouldn't "I"(저) be the subject?
- Why is 여기 a subject in sentence A but not the subject in sentence B?
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"저는 여기가 처음이에요" actually has a very interesting structure, called 서술절: it seems this term is translated into English as "predicative clause" or "predicate clause".
Basically, "여기가 처음이에요" (literally, "this place is the first", or "this place is a first experience") is an inner clause, but then the clause itself acts like a verb for the outer subject, 저. In some sense, the structure is: "I have the property such that (this place is a first experience)".
See Mujjingun's and my own answers in this question.
From a bit of Googling, it seems some scholars prefer to analyze such sentences as having "double subjects". I don't know which side is more widely accepted.
As for sentence B ("저는 여기 온 적 있어요"), I think "여기" is best analyzed as an adverb (goal of a movement) here, in the same way as "I have visited here".
Reference : 관용 표현과 이중 주어
Usage expression and double subject
(1) Chulsoo has a long leg.
ㄱ. 철수가 다리가 길다.
ㄱ'. 다리가 철수가 길다.
It has two subjects and switching is possible.
(2) Kim boss showed his shame.
ㄱ. 김사장이 꼬리가 밟혔다.
ㄱ'. 꼬리가 김사장이 밟혔다. (wrong)
Switching is impossible. By changing a helping word, the following is possible.
ㄱ''. 김사장의 꼬리가 밟혔다.
(3) Three tombs are discovered.
ㄱ. 묘가 세 개가 발견 되었다.
ㄱ' 세 개가 묘가 발견 되었다 (wrong)
ㄱ'' 세 개의 묘가 발견 되었다.
(4) 꼬리가 밟히다 is a usage expression. For another example, 옷걸이가 종다 :
철수는 옷걸이가 좋다.
Chulsoo has a good physical so that any clothes is associated with him.