No matter how hard I try to understand these terms, I can't find clear explanations. If anyone cares to concisely describe each terms and what the English terms are, you'd save my life.











And terms like 삼헌, 분헌, 집사, 찬축....


  • Are these all words in a passage that you're translating?
    – topo morto
    Mar 16 '18 at 11:13
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    Please show the context in which these words appear and generally some more research effort, including your own attempt at translation.
    – dROOOze
    Mar 16 '18 at 15:05
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    These are words that most Koreans will only ever encounter in high school history classes. (In fact I can't even recognize some of these terms, and I grew up in Korea.) If you need to have English translation of these terms, you're probably reading something way above your Korean reading level. (You're supposed to be at least at the level of a native Korean high schooler.)
    – jick
    Mar 16 '18 at 17:09
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    (...And if you're reading something that uses these terms but does not explain them, you're probably reading something aimed at history majors at college. Even I would need a dictionary to read such a document.)
    – jick
    Mar 16 '18 at 17:11
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    Normally on stack exchange we try to ask and answer questions in a way such that they can be as useful and interesting as possible to other users of the site. I've asked a meta question about how we can do that for this type of question - but for now perhaps it would be good if you can put the original reading passage in the question.
    – topo morto
    Mar 17 '18 at 9:07

Koreans learn their history, and learn a bunch of Sino-things. They're even not Sino-Korean. They're totally in 漢文, Chinese writings. Sadly, it's quite different from our current language. The cultural connection as well.

To me, whenever I learn the history, it was quite frustrating to be unable to understand those. For example, in schools, we learn that 정조 (正祖) wrote some books: <대전통편>, <동문휘고>, <탁지지>, <추관지>, <규장전운>. I cannot even guess the Han characters of them; we don't learn the meaning of each character.

What I want to say is, that you should ask this on History Stack Exchange or Chinese Stack Exchange. Things at that time was rather Chinese.

Well, according to the Japanese Wikipedia, 정화오례신의 (政和五礼新儀 / 政和五礼新仪)[1][2][3] is a 儀禮書 (의례서: a book about formality.) and was written on late Northern Song dynasty, completed by Emperor Huizong of Song in 1113. For my best guess, 政 (정) means politics, 和 (화) means -ish or and, 五 (오) means five, 礼 (례) means formality, 新 (신) means new, 儀 (의) means rules: so it would likely mean either Politics and five new rules for formality or Five new politic rules for formality.

And so on. Hmm, I think Wiktionary would be good for you to do this work: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/政.

  • 정화오례신의 (政和五礼新儀) - A book of etiquette/rites compiled during the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song.
  • 주자가례 (朱子家禮) - A book of etiquette/rites of the household (common rites, coming of age rites, weddings, funerals, commemoration rites), authored by Zhu Xi.
  • 강남농법 (江南農法) - Agricultural techniques of China's Yangtze (Yangzi) Delta region (江南 is the region of China located to the south of the Yangtze River, near Shanghai). Quote from the Journal of Korean Studies, Volume 15, No. 1 (Fall 2010): "There is a general concensus among the scholars of Korean history that the introduction of the agricultural method of China's Yangzi Delta is the key to understanding and evaluating early Choseon agricultural development."

  • 실사구시 - possibly 實事求是, a four-character idiom meaning seeking truth from facts, or being practical and realistic.

  • 종법제도 - possibly 宗法制度, meaning the institutions in a society revolving around a patriarchal clan system (which ancient China was based around). This blood relation governs everything relating to inheritance.

  • 치례 - something to do with rituals. Second syllable should be 禮, unsure about the first.

  • 집사 - possibly 執事, which can refer to many things including a court official, deacon (in Christianity), court attendant...

I can't even make an educated guess on the other ones - you haven't provided enough context.

In general, you will get a better answer if you put in some more research effort to help us help you answer the question. For the Chinese-related literature consider finding the Hanja for the words and asking the question on Chinese StackExchange.

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