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I am trying to better understand how to use the form N+(으)로 하여금 to show causation.

In many usages I've seen, N+(으)로 하여금 seems to emphasize a causation being effected on a grammatical object.

Two examples I am confident in as follows:

그로 하여금 약속을 꼭 지키게 했다.

We made him keep his promise.

강 대통령은 임 대표로 하여금 기념 연설문을 쓰게 했다.

President Kang had Representative Im write the commemoration speech.

Here the usage is pretty straight forward. The 로 하여금 indicates who is being caused to keep their promise.

However, one question I have deals with when, if ever, 로 하여금 can just be replaced with 를/을. Here is an example:

감독은 선수들로 하여금 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 지시했다.

The coach made the players participate in winter training.

However, what if I just said the following?

감독은 선수들 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 지시했다. (Using the object marker 을).

Is this also a proper usage, or is 로 하여금 better here?

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Using '로 하여금' is more proper in this case. Using '을' is not wrong, but it sounds unnatural. You can use '에게' instead of '~로 하여금' and '을', because the coach 'made' the players to do something. The point is, when the object is asked to do something by the subject, using '에게' is more natural. ex) The teacher made the student solve a problem. (선생님이 학생에게 문제를 풀게 했다. 선생님이 학생으로 하여금 문제를 풀게 했다.) -> These two sentences are all correct. (but, Koreans use first one more commonly.)

P.S. My English is not perfect. I could made a grammatical error, sorry about that.

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로 하여금 : It means "ordering" so that it can be replaced with 에게, 을/를, 이/가.

1) 감독은 선수들을 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 지시했다

The coach made the players participate in winter training.

Here when we listen the part " 감독은 선수들을 ", we can imagine

" 감독은 선수들로 + action of coach " , for instance 감독은 선수들을 죽였다 The coach killed them.

That is it is a hint but not a emphasis

2) 그 연극은 관객들을 울게 하였다

The performance made them cry

그 연극은 관객들로 하여금 울게 하였다 (X)

3) 감독은 선수들에게 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 지시했다

= 감독은 선수들로 하여금 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 지시했다.

4) 그 영화는 선수들에게 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 만들었다 (X)

그 영화는 선수들로 하여금 동계 훈련에 참여하도록 만들었다.

= The movie made the players participate in winter training.

@movie is not human so that we can not use 에게.

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