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In some cases there are two ways to make an adverb from a 하다 verb. Is there any difference in meaning or nuance between them?

As an example, what's the difference between 침착히 and 침착하게 ?

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Short answer, no difference.

There are two ways to convert a verb or adjective to adverb, one is by adding 게 (i.e. 침착하게), another one is adding a 이,히,... component (i.e. 침착히).

깨끗하다 => 깨끗이, 빠르다 => 빨리, 다르다 => 달리, 지극하다 => 지극히

Which one to use depends on practice of natives. For example 빨리 is much more commonly used then 빠르게.

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  • Since Super Cool answered the essential question of difference first, I best credit him with the answer.
    – B. Alvn
    Apr 10 '17 at 9:06
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Normally there's no difference, but there's at least one case where it makes a difference. Some verbs take another verb/adjective with -게 form as complement:

자동차를 더 안전하게 만들었다. = [They] made the cars (to be) safer.

나는 하늘을 새빨갛게 그렸다. = I painted the sky bright red.

선물 세트를 실물보다 크게 광고했다. = [They] advertised the gift set as bigger than it actually was.

However, they can also act like adverbs, simply modifying the verb, so sometimes it can become ambiguous:

보고서를 침착하게 만들었다. = I made the report calmly. (Not ambiguous, because a report can't be "calm".)

나는 자동차를 빠르게 그렸다. = "I drew/depicted the car as fast." or "I drew the car quickly."

On the other hand, -이/히/리/기 forms are syntactically adverbs and can only act as such:

책상을 빨리 만들었다. = [They] made a desk quickly.

그림을 조용히 그렸다. = [I] painted in silence.

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  • The ~게 만들다 form, by the way, is not a complement, it is a "long causative" in Korean grammar. I'm 98% sure all the other uses you describe are adverbial, aren't they? Anyone else have an opinion about that? Thanks for your input here
    – B. Alvn
    Apr 10 '17 at 9:09
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Here is a list of most commonly used Korean adverbs. korean adverbs list

가끔 / 때로는 - sometimes

가볍게 - lightly 자연스럽게 - naturally 가장 - most 계속 - continuously 곧 - soon 그때는 - at that time, back then 나쁘게 - badly 누가 - who 단순히 - simply 더 - more 덜 - less 드물게 - rarely 때때로 / 종종 - occasionally 맛있게 - deliciously 몇이나 - how many 무려 - as many as 무례하게 - rudely 뭐 - what 바쁘게 - busily 밝게 - brightly 보통 / 대개 - usually 불과 - only 아름답게 - beautifully 아주/매우 - very 아직 - yet 안전하게 - safely 어느 - which 어디 - where 어떻게 - how 어렵게 - difficultly 언제 - when 언젠가 - some time 얼마나 - how much 엄청 - enormously 완전히 - perfectly 왜 - why 용기있게 - bravely 위험하게 - dangerously 이쁘게 - prettily 이제 - now 자주 / 흔히 - frequently 잘 - well 재미있게 - funny 절대 - never 절대로 - absolutely 조용하게 - quietly 지금 - now (time) 편하게 - comfortably 항상 - always 행복하게 - happily

1000 Korean adverbs

https://koreanly.com/korean-adverbs/

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