It is said that there are 5 kinds of sentences : declarative, interrogative, propositive (exhortative), imperative and exclamative sentences. But is it true ? How can the intonation variation be described with words for each kind of sentences ? Does this variation depends on the termination of the sentence for any kind of sentences ?
I'll use Korean terms for that:
The kinds of sentences depend on the final verb endings(종결 어미), or "the termination", as you call it. But there are final verb endings which belong to more than one of these categories, namely -어/-아.
나는 지금 밥 먹어. --평서형(declarative)
아이, 예뻐. --감탄형(exclamative)
뭐가 그리 우스워? --의문형(interrogative)
어서 와. --명령형(imperative)
In this case, you'll need to deduce what kind of sentence it is by context, or innotation.
It is said that there are 5 kinds of sentences : declarative, interrogative, propositive (exhortative), imperative and exclamative sentences. But is it true ?
Well, you could divide them up like that, but different people might split them up differently. Super Cool Handsome Gel Boy in his comment doesn't see propositives as separate, while this book doesn't consider 'exclamatory' as a separate type. This source says "there are at most 5 clause types; declarative, interrogative, imperative, exhortative, and promissive (the last three can even be grouped into one clause type, jussives)."
So however you classify things, it's always going to be a bit opinion-based.
How can the intonation variation be described with words for each kind of sentences ?
I think that's quite a broad question, when you consider how many different endings there are for each function, and also all the other reasons why intonation might vary for a given sentence (depending on what part of the sentence is being emphasised, for example). However, very broadly, I'd say
- Declarative sentences tend to have quite flat intonation, with downward inflection at the end.
- Interrogative sentences tend to rise at the end.
- Propositive sentence intonations do depend on the ending. Something like '갑시다' or '가자' might be said in an almost singing, 'broadcast' style, with a flat high tone. On the other hand, a propositive ending like ㄹ까(요)? or (으)면 어때요? might have a rising inflection at the end, more like a question.
- Imperative intonations depend a lot on mood (angry, sympathetic, etc.)
- Exclamative intonations are often specific to the particular exclamation.
hmm.. You are interested in intonation. You are right. Korean meanings can be different according to intonation. The best way is to hear directly from native speakers. So I will give you examples with simple explanations. Just ask your Korean friends to read them following each intonation.
평서형(declarative) : 밥먹어. 이뻐: There isn't any accents. Monotone.
감탄형(exclamative) : 와~ 완전 이뻐! : Difficult to describe this intonation in letters. You have to hear it. '밥먹어' cannot be exclamative.
의문형(interrogative) : 밥 먹어? 이뻐? : End the sentences with high tone.
명령형(imperative) : 밥 먹어!! : End the sentence with forceful voice. "이뻐" cannot be imperative. 청유형(propositive) : 밥 먹어~~ : End the sentence with long~ voice."이뻐" cannot be propositive.
I made two examples because some words cannot be used as some forms of sentences. I focused on intonation. According to intonation, the meaning and nuance can be different even though they are totally the same words.