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I sometimes hear this phrase but I don't understand what the grammar/meaning is. It's a construction with 보다, right? I didn't find anything for A/V + 나보다 or 보나보다 or anything like that. Where does it come from?

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http://www.howtostudykorean.com/unit-5/lessons-109-116/lesson-109/

The grammar that you are seeking is ㄴ/은/는가 보다, but it is usually shortened to 나 보다. Its basic meaning is "I guess...", however you should use it only when you have a clear evidence to support your guess.

Ex: 지금 야채가 없나 봐요. -> I think(I guess) there is no vegetable now.

You guess it because, let's say, usually the vegetables are sold out at time slots of the speaking moment, which is a clear fact understood by experience, instead of feeling only.

Ex: 그 걸 봤나 봐. -> I guess he saw that.

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It has two meaning: One is "than," and the other is "to guess."

The first 보다 is used with comparison:

"more (adjective) than (phrase/noun)" "(phrase/noun)보다 더 (adjective)하다."

The second 보다 is ending expression:

"~하나보다," "한가보다." 하나보다 means "To guess something/someone does ~." 한가보다 means "To guess something/someone is~."

Some examples:

올 해는 작년보다 덜 춥다.

This year is less cold than the last.

진수는 나보다 달리기를 더 잘한다.

진수 is better at running than me.

날씨가 추운 것 보니, 겨울이 왔나보다.

The weather is cold, guess winter has come.

There is an expression: ~한 것 보니, ~한가보다. Means "I see that~, so I guess~"

A: 배가 너무 고프다

B: 운동을 너무 열심히 했나보다

A: I'm so hungry

B: guess you worked out so hard.

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