Or more specifically, the difference between
- V + (으)ㄹ래요
- V + 고 싶어요
They both seem to express intention in doing something, equivalent to "I want to do" in English. What is the difference?
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I think -ㄹ래요 is more like "I'm going to...": you announce your intention to do something, implying that you will do it. E.g.,
(a) (식당에서) 비빔밥 먹을래요. = I'll choose bibimbap.
(b) 비빔밥 먹고 싶어요. = I want to eat bibimbap.
In a dialogue, saying (b) would mean you're waiting for the other person's response. So, the sentence can be used when it is uncertain whether you would eat bibimbap after all: the other person might suggest to go to a Chinese restaurant instead.
In case (a), you are ordering bibimbap, so it's clear that you will receive bibimbap by saying these words. So, in the context of ordering food, (a) is more natural.
Just like "I'm going to...", -ㄹ래요 does not always require immediate action. You could add conditions:
비가 계속 오면 집에 갈래요. = If it keeps raining, I'm going home.
배고플 때 먹을래요. = I'm gonna eat it when I get hungry.
통일이 되면 평양에 가볼래요. = If Korea is unified, I'll visit Pyongyang.