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-당하다 seems to mean to 'suffer' or 'undergo' something.

교통사고에서 사람 다섯 명은 부상을 당했어요 = Five people were injured in the car accident. (link)

Here, the pattern is N + 을 당하다.

There is another pattern (or maybe a variation on the same pattern?) where a transitive verb has a counterpart with -당하다 that has a passive meaning (where that passive meaning is undesirable):

구타하다 (to beat) –구타 당하다 (get beaten up)

this pattern is N + 당하다, where 'N' is a "-하다 verb stem".

I am wondering:

  • Are these two patterns actually the same? Would it make sense to say '구타를 당하다' ?
  • Can you take any N+하다 verb and create a N+당하다 counterpart? Say, for 93.소개하다 (to introduce), could you say '소개 당하다' to (perhaps humorously) suggest that the introduction was unwelcome, or '결혼 당하다' to talk about being unhappily married? Or is the pattern not generative like that?
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Answer to question 1: You can add 당하다 after a noun to express passive voice, but only when that matches with the meaning "suffer, undergo".

Answer to question 2: No. 당하다 is only one of the words to indicate passive voice, just like 되다, 받다, and cannot be applied to ALL 하다 verbs. But of course, we can apply 당하다 to certain 하다 words.

Example: 사고를 당하다, 고통을 당하다, 죽음을 당하다

Counter examples:

사랑하다, passive voice is 사랑받다, and seldom 사랑당하다

제공하다, passive voice is 제공되다, and I have never seen 제공당하다

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  • 'a noun to express passive voice, but not all.' - do you mean not all nouns (only some nouns)?
    – topo morto
    Oct 1 '16 at 6:03
  • @topo morto Yes, there are words that are conventionally followed by 당하다, but for the other words, we would use another word. Oct 1 '16 at 6:06

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