In the following sentences:
아무도 안 앉아 있어요
아무도 안 뛰어올라요
Why does it require 도 to express nobody...?
In the dictionary, 아무 means no one or nobody, so why is it not something like 아무가, which expresses the nominative case?
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Explaining 아무도 as "nobody" is a bit misleading.
아무 is translatable to "any" and "anyone".
아무 말이나 해 봐라. say anything.
아무나 할 수 있습니다. anybody can do it.
아무 때나 찾아와. come find me anytime.
And, of course it can be used with 가(although this usage is rare), or any other particle in that matter:
고집 세거나 영악스러운 데는 없어도, 아무가 보아도 순하고 말썽 없는 아이로 생긴 모습이었다. (example from the dictionary)
아무의 눈에도 띄지 않았다. wasn't seen by anybody
아무한테나 주지 마라. Don't give it out to anybody.
This explains 아무도. 아무도, used with negations like 안 or -지 않다, negates 아무, and becomes "not any" or effectively, "none".
아무도 안 왔다. anyone did not come = nobody came
아무와도 마주치지 않았다. I didn't run into anybody = I ran into no one
In conclusion, 아무 means "any", and 아무도 안 is just a plain negation of "any", which equals "none".
Other negation types, such as 못, 없다, 모르다 are possible to use with 아무도.
아무도 못 한다. Nobody can do it.
아무도 없다. Nobody's here.
아무도 모른다. Nobody knows.
The pronoun '아무' is an extraordinary pronoun in that it doesn't take as many particles as other normal pronouns such as '나', '우리', '그' and '그들', etc. In other words, it is idiomatic to use '도' in a negative sentence and '나' and '라도' in an affirmative sentence.
It could translate to 'everybody (anybody)' and 'nobody' as the example sentences in the linked dictionary show:
아직 아무도 안 왔다. Nobody has come yet (negative sentence).
이 일은 아무라도 할 수 있다. Everybody (Anybody) can do this job (positive statement). You should not use '도' in this positive sentence as "이 일은 아무도 할 수 있다" sounds weird as Koreans would expect to hear a negative sentence when hearing '아무도'.
In conclusion, '가' is never used as a particle for '아무' in everyday conversation.
A side note: "아무도 앉아 있지 않아요." sounds better than "아무도 안 앉아 있어요."
Edit: There are some expressions using '아무가' and it seems that it was used only in some literary work. It is never idiomatic and '누가' should be used in place of '아무가' as in:
?아무가 보아도 그녀는 예쁘다.
누가 보아도 그녀는 예쁘다. (Literally) Whoever sees her, she is pretty.